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But Ballerini has declared that whatsoever is ascribed to the Roman See, Cathedra, or Church is to be ascribed to the Person of the Roman Pontiff only. Therefore this infallibility and coercive power are to be ascribed to him, and are personal.

Here we have the infallibility personal, independent, and absolute, fully and explicitly taught by two chief theologians of great repute.

But hitherto we have not met the word separate, though in truth the word sole, or alone, is equivalent.

I will therefore add certain quotations from the great Dominican School.

Bzovius, the continuator of the Annals of Baronius, says, “To Peter alone, and after him to all the Roman Pontiffs legitimately succeeding, the privilege of infallibility, as it is called, was conceded by the Prince of Pastors, Christ, who is God."*

Dominicus Marchese writes: “ This privilege was conceded to the successors of Peter alone without the assistance of the College of Cardinals;” and again, “To the Roman Pontiff alone,

absolute necessaria est, ac proinde infallibilatis prærogativa absoluta illi est tribuenda, et vis coactiva ad fidei unitatem pariter absoluta : sicuti absoluta est item infallibilitas et vis coactiva ipsius Ecclesiæ Catholicæ, quæ Romanæ fidei adhærere oportet. Appendix De in. fall. Pont. Prop. vii.

* “Soli Petro et post eum omnibus Romanis Pontificibus legitime sedentibus, infallibilitatis quod vocant privilegium, a Principe pastorum Christo Deo concessum, ut in rebus fidei, morum doctrina, et universalis Ecclesiæ administratione certissima nullaque fallaciæ nota inumbrata decreta veritatis ipsius radio scribant edicant et sanciant.”—Bzovius, de Pontifice Romano, cap. xiv. p. 106; apud Rocaberti, Biblioth. Pontif. tom. i. Rome, 1698.

in the person of Peter, was committed the care of the Universal Church, and firmness, and certainty in defining matters of faith.” *

Gravina teaches as follows:.“ To the Pontiff, as one (person) and alone, it was given to be the head;" and again, “The Roman Pontiff for the time being is one, therefore he alone has infallibility." +

Vincentius Ferré says, “The exposition of certain Paris (doctors) is of no avail, who affirm that Christ only promised that the faith should not fail of the Church founded upon Peter; and not that it should not fail in the successors of Peter taken apart from (seorsum) the Church.” He adds that our Lord said, “I have prayed for thee, Peter; sufficiently showing that the infallibility was not promised to the Church as apart from (seorsum) the head, but promised to the head, that from him it should be derived to the Church." I

*“Soli Petro secluso ab Apostolis ac proinde soli ejus successori Summo Pontifici secluso Cardinalium Collegio hoc privilegium concessit.”-Marchese, de Capite visibili Ecclesiæ, disput. iii. dub. 2, p. 719; apud Rocaberti, tom. ix.

“Soli Romano Pontifici in persona Petri commissa est cura totius Ecclesiæ et firmitas et certitudo in definiendo res fidei.”—Marchese, disput. v. dub. 1, sect. 2, p. 785; apud Rocaberti, tom. ix.

+“Uni et soli Pontifici datum est esse caput.”—Gravina, de supremo Judice controv. Fidei, quæst. i. apud Rocaberti, tom. viii. p. 392.

“Nullus in terra reperitur alter, qui cæteris sit in fide firmior et constantior sciatur esse quam unus Pontifex Romanus pro tempore ; ergo et ipse solus habet infallibilitatem.”—Gravina, quæst. ii. apud Rocaberti, tom. viii. p. 422.

† “Nec valet expositio aliquorum Parisiensium affirmantium hic Christum tantum promisisse fidem non defecturam Ecclesiæ fundatæ super Petrum, non vero promisisse non defecturam in successoribus

Marchese, before quoted, repeats the same words, “ The infallibility in faith which (our Lord) promised, not to the Church apart from (seorsum) the head, but to the head, that from him it should be derived to the Church.” * Billuart also says, “(Christ) makes a clear distinction of Peter from the rest of the Apostles, and from the whole Church, when He says, And thou, &c.”+

Peter Soto writes: “When this (Pasce oves meas, &c.) was said to Peter in the presence of the rest of the Apostles, it was said to Peter as one, and as apart from (seorsum) the rest." +

And Marchese again, “Therefore to Peter alone set apart from the Apostles (secluso ab Apostolis), and therefore to his successor alone, the Supreme Pontiff, set apart from the College of Cardinals, He (our Lord) conceded this privilege.”S

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Petri seorsum ab Ecclesia sumptis. Christus dicens, ego autem rogavi pro te Petre, satis designat hanc infallibilitatem non promissam Ecclesiæ ut seorsum a capite, sed promissam capiti, ut ex illo derivetur ad Ecclesiam.”-Ferre, De Fide, quæst. xii. apud Rocaberti, tom. xx. p. 388.

*“Satis designat infallibilitatem in fide quam promisit, non Ecclesiæ seorsum a Capite sed Capiti ut ex illo derivetur ad Ecclesiam.” -Marchese, de capite Visib. Eccles. disput. iii. dub. 2; apud Rocaberti, tom. ix. p. 719.

“Facit enim apertam distinctionem Petri ab aliis apostolis et a tota Ecclesia cum dicit, et tu aliquando conversus confirma fratres tuos.”—Billuart, de Regulis Fidei, dissert. iv. art. 5, sect. 2, tom. iv p. 78. Venice, 1787.

I“ Dum vero hoc Petro coram cæteris apostolis dicitur, uni inquam, Petro et a cæteris seorsum.”—Petrus Soto, Defensio Catholicos Confessionis, cap. 82, apud Rocaberti, tom. xviii. p. 73.

Ş“Ergo soli Petro secluso ab Apostolis ac proinde soli ejus suca ssori summo Pontifici, secluso Cardinalium collegio, hoc privi. legium concessit.”—Marchese, de Capite visib. Eccles. disp. iii. dub. 2; apud Rocaberti, tom. ix. p. 715.

Lastly, F. Gatti, the learned professor of theology of the Dominican Order at this day, writing of the words, “I have prayed for thee," &c., says, “indefectibility is promised to Peter apart from (seorsum) the Church, or from the Apostles; but it is not promised to the Apostles, or to the Church, apart from (seorsum) the head, or with the head,” and afterwards he adds, “ Therefore Peter, even apart from (seorsum) the Church, is infallible."*

Muzzarelli, in his treatise on the primacy and infallibility of the Pontiff, uses the same terms again and again ; of which the following is an example: Speaking as in the person of the Pontiff, he says, “ If I separately from a Council propose any truth to be believed by the Universal Church, it is most certain that I cannot err." +

In like manner Mauro Cappellari, afterwards Gregory XVI., affirms that the supreme judge of controversies is the Pontiff,“ distinct and separate from all other Bishops; and that his decree in things of faith ought by them to be held without doubt.” ť

*“Indefectibilitas promittitur Petro seorsum ab Ecclesia seu ab A postolis ; non vero promittitur Apostolis seu Ecclesiæ sive seorsum a capite, sive una cum capite.—Ergo Petrus etiam seorsum ab Ecclesia spectatus est infallibilis.”—Gatti, Institutiones ApologeticoPolemicæ. apud Bianchi de Constitutione Monarchica Ecclesiæ, p. 124. Rome, 1870.

7" Ne viene che se anch'io separatamente dal concilio vorrò proporre alla chiesa universale la verità da credersi su questo articolo, non potrò certamente errare.”—Muzzarelli, Primato ed Infallibilità del Papa, in Il Buon Uso della Logica, tom. i. p. 183. Florence, 1821.

# Il Trionfo della Santa Sede, Cap. v. Sect. 10, p. 124. Venezia, 1832.

Lastly, Clement VI., in the fourteenth century, proposed to the Armenians certain interrogations, of which the fourth is as follows:

“ Hast thou believed, and dost thou still believe, that the Roman Pontiff alone can, by an authentic determination to which we must inviolably adhere, put an end to doubts which arise concerning the Catholic faith; and that whatsoever he, by the authority of the keys delivered to him by Christ, determines to be true, is true and Catholic ; and what he determines to be false and heretical is to be so esteemed ? ” *

In the above passages we have infallibility personal, absolute, independent, without the Apostles, without the college of Cardinals, alone, apart from the Church, separate from Councils and from Bishops.

I am not aware of any modern writer who has used language so explicit and fearless.

We will now ascertain the scholastic meaning of these terms; and we shall see that they are in precise accordance with the definition of the Council.

You need not be reminded, Reverend and dear Brethren, of the terminology of Canonists in treating the subject of privileges.

A privilege is a right, or faculty, bestowed upon persons, places, or things.

*“Si credidisti et adhuc credis solum Romanum Pontificem, dubiis emergentibus circa fidem catholicam posse per determinationem authenticam cui sit inviolabiliter adhærendum, finem imponere et esse verum et Catholicum quidquid ipse auctoritate clavium sibi traditarum a Christo determinat esse verum ; et quod determinat esse falsum et hæreticum sit censendum.”-Baronius, tom. xxv. ad ann. 1351, p. 529. Lucca, 1750.

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