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of philosophy or science, except as they bear upon revealed truths; nor does it claim to intervene in philosophy or science as a judge or censor of the principles proper to such philosophy or science. The only judgment it pronounces regards the conformity or variance of such processes of the human intelligence with the deposit of faith, and the principles of revealed morality ; that is, in order to the end of the infallible office, namely, the guardianship of Divine revelation.

I will not here attempt to enumerate the subjectmatters which fall within the limits of the infallibility of the Church. It belongs to the Church alone to determine the limits of its own infallibility. Hitherto it has not done so except by its acts, and from the practice of the Church we may infer to what matter its infallible, discernment extends. It is enough for the present to show two things:

1. First, that the infallibility of the Church extends, as we have seen, directly to the whole matter of revealed truth, and indirectly to all truths which though not revealed are in such contact with revelation that the deposit of faith and morals cannot be guarded, expounded, and defended without an infallible discernment of such unrevealed truths.

2. Secondly, that this extension of the infallibility of the Church is, by the unanimous teaching of all theologians, at least theologically certain ; and, in the judgment of the majority of theologians, certain by the certainty of faith.

Such is the traditional doctrine respecting the infallibility of the Church in faith and morals. By the definition of the Vatican Council, what is traditionally believed by all the faithful in respect to the Church is expressly declared of the Roman Pontiff. But the definition of the extent of that infallibility, and of the certainty on which it rests, in matters not revealed, has not been treated as yet, but is left for the second part of the “ Schema De Ecclesia.”

III. Thirdly, the definition declares the efficient cause of infallibility to be a Divine assistance promised to Peter, and in Peter to his successors.

The explicit promise is that of our Divine Lord to Peter. “I have prayed for thee that thy faith fail not, and thou being once converted, confirm thy brethren."*

The implicit promise is in the words “ On this rock I will build my Church, and the Gates of Hell shall not prevail against it.”+

The traditional interpretation of these promises is precise.

The words, “ Ego rogavi pro te, ut non deficiat fides tua, et tu aliquando conversus confirma fratres tuos,” are interpreted, by both Fathers and Councils, of the perpetual stability of Peter's faith in his see and his successors; and of this assertion I give the following proofs.

St. Ambrose, A.D. 397, in his treatise on Faith, says, Christ“ said to Peter, I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not. Was He not therefore able to confirm the faith of him to whom by His own authority He gave the kingdom ? whom he pointed out as the foundation of the Church, when He called him the Rock?"*

* St. Luke xxii. 32.

+ St. Matth. xvi. 18.

St. John Chrysostom, A.D. 407, in his commentary on the Acts of the Apostles, writes, “ He (i. e. Peter) takes the lead in the matter, as he was himself entrusted with the care of all. For Christ said to him, Thou, being converted, confirm thy brethren." +

St. Augustine, A.D. 430, in his commentary on the words of Psalm cxviii. 43, “ And take not Thou the word of truth utterly out of my mouth," says, “ Therefore the whole body of Christ speaks; that is the universality of the Holy Church. And the Lord Himself said to Peter, I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not, that is, that the word of truth be not utterly taken out of thy mouth.”#

St. Cyril of Alexandria, A.D. 444, in his commentary on St. Luke, says, “The Lord, when He hinted at the denial of His disciple and said, I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not, immediately utters a word of consolation, thou being converted, confirm thy brethren; that is, be the con

* Habes in evangelio quia Petro dixit, Rogavi pro te ut non deficiat fides tua.—Ergo cui propria auctoritate regnum dabat, hujus fidem firmare non poterat ; quem cum petram dixit firmamentum Ecclesiæ indicavit ?-St. Ambrose De Fide, lib. iv. cap. v. tom. iii. p. 672, ed. Ben. Venice, 1751.

+ Πρώτος του πράγματος αυθεντεϊ, άτε αυτός πάντας εγχειρισθείς, προς γάρ τούτον είπεν ο Χριστός: Και συ ποτε επιστρέψας στήριξαν τους αδελpoúc onv.–St. Joann. Chrys. Opp. tom. ix. p. 26, ed. Ben. Paris, 1731.

# Totum itaque corpus Christi loquitur, id est Ecclesiæ sanctæ universitas. - Et ipse Dominus ad Petrum, Rogavi, inquit, pro te, ne deficiat fides tua; hoc est ne auferatur ex ore tuo verbum veritatis usque valde.—St. Augustin. Enarratio in Psalmos, tom. iv. p. 1310. ed. Ben. Paris, 1681.

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firmer and teacher of those who came to Me by faith.*

St. Leo the Great, A. D. 460, in a discourse on the anniversary of his election to the Pontificate, says, “ If anything in our time and by us is well administered and rightly ordained, it is to be ascribed to his operation and to his government, to whom it was said, “Thou being converted, confirm thy brethren,' and to whom after His resurrection, in answer to his threefold declaration of everlasting love, the Lord with mystical meaning thrice said, • Feed my sheep.'”+

St. Gelasius, A. D. 496, writes to Honorius, Bishop of Dalmatia, “ Though we are hardly able to draw breath in the manifold difficulties of the times; yet in the government of the Apostolic See we unceasingly have in hand the care of the whole fold of the Lord, which was committed to blessed Peter by the voice of our Saviour Himself,' And thou being converted, confirm thy brethren,' and again, Peter, lovest thou Me? Feed My sheep.'”+



* Ο μέντοι Κύριος την του μαθητού άρνησιν αινιξάμενος εν οις έφη, έδεήθην περί σου να μη έκλίπη η πίστις σου, εισφέρει παραχρήμα τον της παρακλήσεώς λόγον, καί φησι, Και συ ποτε επιστρέψας στήριξαν τους αδελφούς σου· τούτεστι γενου στήριγμα και διδάσκαλος των διά πίστεως προGLÓVtwv čuoi.-St. Cyrill. Alex. Comment. in Luc. xxii. tom. v. p. 916, ed. Migne, Paris, 1848.

+ Tantam potentiam dedit ei quem totius Ecclesiæ principem fecit, ut si quid etiam nostris temporibus recte per nos agitur recteque disponitur illius operibus illius sit gubernaculis deputandum, cui dictuin est, Et tu conversus confirma fratres tuos ; et cui post ressurectionem suam Dominus ad trinam æterni amoris professionem mystica insinuatione ter dixit, Pasce oves meas.—St. Leo, serm. iv. cap. iv. tom. i. p. 19, ed. Ballerini, Venice, 1753.

# Licet inter varias temporum difficultates vix respirare valeamus, pro sedis tamen apostolicæ moderamine totius ovilis dominici

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Pelagius II., A. D. 590, in like manner writes to the Bishops of Istria, “For you know how the Lord in the gospel declares: Simon, Simon, behold Satan has desired you that he might sift you as wheat, but I have prayed the Father for thee, that thy faith fail not, and thou being converted, confirm thy brethren. See, beloved, the truth cannot be falsified, nor can the faith of Peter ever be shaken or changed."*

St. Gregory the Great, A. D. 604, in his celebrated letter to Maurice, Emperor of the East, says, “ For it is clear to all who know the Gospel, that the care of the whole Church was committed to the Apostle St. Peter, prince of all the Apostles. For to him it is said, 'Peter, lovest thou me? Feed My sheep.' To him it is said, “Behold, Satan has desired to sift you as wheat: but I have prayed for thee, Peter, that thy faith fail not, and thou being once converted, confirm thy brethren.' To him it is said, “Thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build My church.'”+

curam sine cessatione tractantes, quæ beato Petro salvatoris ipsius nostri voce delegata est, Et tu conversus confirma fratres tuos; et item, Petre, amas me? pasce oves meas.-St. Gelasius, epist. V.; in Labbe, Concil. tom. v. p. 298, Venice, 1728.

* Nostis enim in evangelio dominum proclamantem, Simon, Simon, ecce Satanas expetivit vos, ut cribraret sicut triticum, ego autem rogavi pro te Patrem, ut non deficiat fides tua, et tu conversus confirma fratres tuos. Considerate, carissimi, quia veritas mentiri non potuit, nec fides Petri in æternum quassari poterit vel mutari.—Pelagius. II. epist. v. in Labbe, Concil. tom. vi. p. 626.

+ Cunctis enim Evangelium scientibus liquet, quod voce domin. ica sancto et omnium apostolorum Petro Principi Apostolo totius Ecclesiæ cura commissa est. Ipsi quippe dicitur, Petre, amas me? pasce oves meas. Ipsi dicitur, Ecce Satanas expetiit cribrare vos sicut triticut; et ego pro te rogavi, Petre, ut non deficiat fides tua ;

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