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this and in many other parts of Leander's correspondence ; but some parts of it offended the ultra

or exterior correction, cannot be exercised, but by his authority, who beareth the civil sword; nor any prelature, or ecclesiastical benefice or state be conferred, but accord

ing to his ordinance or consent, because of the relation “ which such places have to points of state and temporalities. “ With all which it may be said, that the privilege of eccle“siastical or clergy exemption is more exactly kept in this “ realm, than in some neighbouring catholic states. Out " of which it seemeth very consequent, that, if his holiness “ would condescend to this point, as it is above declared, “ and practised in other catholic kingdoms, his majesty and “ the state might be easier induced to admit of the pope's “ spiritual supremacy.

Now, for the oath of allegiance,-it may perhaps be a good reconciliation, instead of the scrupulous oath penned “ in the parliament, to permit, that such an oath might be proposed to his majesty's subjects, as followeth :"

Here father Leander inserts the form of an oath,-in which all the offensive expressions contained in the oath proposed by king James are omitted.

“He,"—(that is, the person sent on this negotiation,)“will “ also be, out of doubt, truly dealt withal about a bishop " and bishoplike authority over the catholics of England; in " which he is to take directions from his majesty and the state, “ the matter being of very great consequence, either to hinder, or farther his majesty's pious intentions." Lastly,—It seemeth very convenient that the


and “ court be dealt withal not to vex moderate catholics, by cen

sures or disgraces, since their end is to please God and the “ king, and promote the union of catholic religion; and the

means employed by them are in their conscience lawful, and " allowed of in other catholic states. The contrary proceed

ing cannot but exasperate the king and state, to see none “ favoured or magnified in that court, but over-timorous “ zealots, and none laid at by emulation more than peaceable

montane ears. From the apologetical letters addressed by him to cardinal Barberini *, we find that he was accused of over-rating the supposed favourable disposition of the king and his ministers, towards the catholics ; of describing the condition of the catholics to be less grievous than it really was; of placing the subjects in discussion rather in a political than a religious point of view; of advising too liberal concessions ; of circumscribing too much the pope's spiritual power, and rejecting altogether his deposing power.

His advocation, though very guarded, of James's oath was also objected to him: he admits, that, in the sense, in which it was explained by its adversaries, and by some even of his majesty's ministers, it was indefensible; but he contends that the explanations given of it both by the royal propounder and the reigning sovereign, made it harmless.

His apologies did not satisfy.—“ The see of “ Rome,”—(father Wilford, a Benedictine monk, writes thus to Leander in a letter, which we have already cited *),—“ having stood for her rights, so “ many ages, in the cause of deposing princes, will “ be very unwilling to permit the oath, as the words “ lie, although glossed with another intention.

“ and well-minded patriots: especially, this proceeding “ hindereth

many learned and able men from declaring them“ selves for the king's lawful and laudable intentions; who, “ otherwise, would reverently speak what they think to be "true, to the greater good of the church, and of their country, “ and without any offence of true religion.”

• Cla. State Papers, vol. i. p. 185, 211. + Ibid. vol. i. p.

« Look over the oath, which usually is exhibited

to catholics in Ireland, examine other forms of “ oaths in catholic countries ; add to them, aug“ ment them, and endeavour to form them in that “ kind and in those words, which may secure and “content his majesty, as is most just and reasonable “ to be done ; yet take heed of meddling with de

ponibility of princes, for that will never pass “ here." How greatly is it to be lamented that this chimerical claim of the papal see stood in the way of so many wise and promising exertions to relieve the English catholics from the dreadful persecution under which they groaned! Of so many attempts to restore, if not a communion of religious belief, at least a communion of peace and good-will between protestants and catholics!

LVI. 2.

Signor Panzani.

The court of Rome being dissatisfied, for the reasons which have been mentioned, with father Leander, but being still desirous of ascertaining the true causes of the contentions between the secular and regular clergy, by which catholics and protestants were equally scandalized, and of terminating them altogether, determined to send into England, for this purpose, signor Gregorio Panzani, an Italian clergyman of the congregation of the

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Oratorians. He was directed to keep his mission from public observation, and, to accompany car

* The writer of these pages has been favoured with the perusal of two valuable documents, which give an account of Panzani's mission. The first is,—what we should call, Panzani's report to Pope Urban VIII of his mission ;-in the original it is intituled, Relazione dello Stato della Religione Catholica in Inghilterra ; Data alla sanctita di N. S. Urbano VIII da Gregorio Panzani nel suo ritorno da quel Regno, l'anno 1637.-It has not been published; a copy of it is in the possession of the writer; another is said to be in the possession of the rev. Charles Plowden of Stonyhurst. We shall afterwards see that the congregation of the Propa. gandâ ordered a copy of it to be given to Panzani's successor in the negotiation.

The second of these decuments, is generally called the Memoirs of signor Panzani. They were translated from the original Italian by doctor Witham, who was appointed vicar apostolic of the midland district of English catholics in the year 1703. The title, which it bears in the translation, is, The Reasons for which Urban the eighth sent Mr. Gregory Panzani to the Queen of England, and his negotiation there, translated out of the Italian, 1635, 1636.” The translation is evidently made with great care : at the close of it, the translator subjoins the following declaration,-“ In this translation, “ I know not, whether I have always hit the true sense ; “ the writing being very hard to read ; but I know I have

no reason to think I have been mistaken in any material “point; and sometimes, where I doubted of the sense, I put “ the Italian word into the margin, and some few times, could " not make out a word or two, by reason of the close writing " and abbreviations."

The first mention which the writer has found of Panzani is in “ The Popes Nuntioes; or, the Negotiation of seignior “ Panzani, seignior Conn, &c. president, here in England, “ with the Queen, and treating about the alteration of religion,

dinal Mazarine in his return to France from Italy ; thence, he was to repair to England, under the

with the archbishop of Canterbury, and his adherents, in the years of our Lord 1634, 1635, 1636, &c. Together with

a letter to a nobleman of this kingdom concerning the same. « London, printed for R. B. 1634. 4to."

First comes “a letter," (of two pages, signed D. T.) “from a private gentleman to a person of honour, concerning the

negotiation of the nuncios, which followeth.”—The writer of it says,“

“ The Venetian ambassador was the author of the " little story; a man, whose religion would not suffer him to * favour the reformed churches, or to blast his own, with any “ falsehood, especially in an account to a wise state, which "employed him; a man of dear acquaintance with Panzani, “ and although no master-builder, yet a pious servant and spectator of the work : when

you shall hear that the Italian copy was first translated into French for the great cardinal's “ satisfaction, and I do not doubt, it hath good acquaintance in & the Spanish court, and could speak that language long ago."

Then the work follows-it is contained in sixteen pages. The writer describes England as divided into three factions, “ That of the puritans is the most potent; consisting of some " bishops, all the gentry and commonalty: that of the pro"testants, is composed of the king, almost all the bishops and

nobility, and besides, of both the universities: the catholics « are least in number, yet make a party in the state sufficiently “ considerable, because the body of them is composed of such “ of the nobility as are most rich, powerful and strong in alliance, and of no small number of the inferior sort."

He mentions the controversies respecting the appointment of a bishop:-he says, “ the secular clergy and all catholics “ adhered to him; the regulars and particularly the jesuits “ opposing him.” He mentions that Panzáni was sent into England in 1634, favourably received by the king, the queen, and the secretaries Windebank and Cottington :—that he suggested the appointment of a catholic bishop, not to exercise

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