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according action affections ancient animals appear association beauty become believe benevolence causes character Christian Cicero circumstances civilisation condition consequences constitutes continually course death derived desire distinct Divine doctrine duty empire enjoyment especially evil example excellence existence extreme fact favour feelings followed give Greek habits hand happiness Hist human ideas imagination important influence intellectual interest Italy kind latter leading less lives maintained mankind manner means mind moral moralists motive nature never object observed opinion original pain passion perfect period philosophy pleasure political position possible present principles probably produce prove question reason regarded religion religious remarkable represented result Roman Rome says selfish Seneca sense simply slaves society spirit Stoics suffering theory things thought tion true truth utilitarian utility vice virtue virtuous whole writers
Sayfa 8 - Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do.
Sayfa 42 - As between his own happiness and that of others, utilitarianism requires him to be as strictly impartial as a disinterested and benevolent spectator. In the golden rule of Jesus of Nazareth, we read the complete spirit of the ethics of utility. To do as you would be done by, and to love your neighbour as yourself, constitute the ideal perfection of utilitarian morality.
Sayfa 49 - The creed which accepts as the foundation of morals, Utility, or the Greatest Happiness Principle, holds that actions are right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness.
Sayfa 39 - ... the motive has nothing to do with the morality of the action, though much with the worth of the agent.
Sayfa 14 - And from this account of obligation it follows, that we can be obliged to nothing, but what we ourselves are to gain or lose something by ; for nothing else can be a ' violent motive ' to us. As we should not be obliged to obey the laws, or the magistrate, unless rewards or punishments, pleasure or pain...
Sayfa 16 - That men should keep their compacts is certainly a great and undeniable rule in morality; but yet, if a Christian, who has the view of happiness and misery in another life, be asked why a man must keep his word, he will give this as a reason: "Because God, who has the power of eternal life and death, requires it of us.
Sayfa 10 - ... appeareth more probability that the same may happen to us ; for the evil that happeneth to an innocent man may happen to every man.
Sayfa 8 - By the principle of utility is meant that principle which approves or disapproves of every action whatsoever, according to the tendency which it appears to have to augment or diminish the happiness of the party whose interest is in question: or, what is the same thing in other words, to promote or to oppose that happiness.