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Mosheim speaks of another work by Claudius, his “ Chronology,” and in a note adds, “ See Simon, Critique de la Biblioth. Eccle. de M. du Pin, tom. 1. p. 284. .

P. 33. As the passage in the MS. is imperfect, and also appears to require a note, part of it has been omitted in the text at p. 33, but is here transcribed in full. It is as follows, " Ainsi s'expliquait cet homme de bien, loué de tous les grands personnages de son siècle, qui par une, etrange, est animé de l'esprit de Calvin, si nous nous en rapportons au jugement de Genebrand archévêque d'Aix, qui nomme ses dogmes calvinistas Claudii Taurinensis assertiones. Que serait-ce,” &c. As these words occur at the close of extracts from the works of Claude, against the supremacy of the pope, against pilgrimages to Rome, against the invocation and intercession of saints, against image-worship, and against the religious adoration of the cross, the expressions relative to his being animated with the spirit of Calvin, &c. have no reference to the peculiar tenets of Calvin with respect either to church-government or doctrines; but allude simply to his having opposed the church of Rome, on the same grounds that not only Calvin, but Luther and Cranmer and many other reformers did. This observation is confirmed by another passage of Genebrand (or

rather Genebrard), who in the 3rd book of his

Chronography,” as cited by Leger, (p. 155,) remarks, “ Calvinistæ et Lutherani in multis conveniunt cum istis Henricianis, Petrobrusianis, Arnauldistis, Apostolicis, et Valdensibus.”

P. 33. “ Les nouveaux mystères de la messe. - mais la transubstantiation n'était pas encore née." —As the church of Rome too arrogantly boasts of the antiquity of her doctrines, and too rashly charges protestant doctrines with novelty; it becomes essential to shew from time to time, that the reverse is the truth; that the peculiarities that characterize the church of Rome, and distinguish her from other churches are novelties, and that the doctrines preserved by the Waldenses, and revived by protestants at the reformation are the ancient doctrines of the primitive church. The doctrines of transubstantiation and the real presence is a comparatively modern invention. The inventor was Paschasius Radbert, a monk, afterwards abbot of Corbey, who wrote his treatise on the subject in the year 831. His opinions were warmly combated by several members of the church of Rome, especially the celebrated Bertramn, a priest and monk of Corbey, Johannes Scotus, who composed treatises by order of Charles the Bald. Opinions were still divided for a long period, namely, till the

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fourth council of the Lateran, held by Innocent III. in the year 1215. « This audacious pontiff,” says Mosheim,“ pronounced the opinion that is embraced at this day in the church of Rome relating to that point, to be the only true and orthodox account of the matter; and he had the honour of introducing and establishing the use of the term transubstantiation, which was hitherto absolutely unknown.”*

P. 33. " Berenger,”—or, as some write, Berengarius, was distinguished in the field of controversy in the 11th century, as the antagonist of Lanfranc archbishop of Canterbury, who employed his great talents in defending the doctrine of transubstantiation. Berenger was also the author of a commentary on the “ Revelation of St. John.” As this able disputant was not a preacher amongst the Waldenses, (although it would appear acquainted with them) and only maintained certain opinions in unison with theirs, he should be rather considered an adversary to unscriptural tenets of the church of Rome, than a Vaudois“ pastor, "as denominated by M. Peyran. Berenger passed the latter part of his life in devotional exercises at the isle of St. Cosme near Tours, and died A. D. 1088. The canous of the cathedral of

* Ecc. Hist. iii. 243.

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Tours honour the memory of Berenger, by an annual procession to his tomb in the isle of St. Cosme, where they perform a solemn service. *

P. 35. “ En réduisant Nicolas II. à se déshonorer par un affreux galamatias."-A passage in Mosheim's Eccl. Hist.t will discover to what galamatias, or confusion of words, on the part of pope Nicholas II., the author alludes. “ The exasperated pontiff summoned him (Berenger) to Rome, A. D. 1058, and terrified him in such a manner, in the council held there the following year, that he declared his readiness to embrace and adhere to the doctrines which that venerable assembly should think proper to impose upon his faith.

Humbert was accordingly appointed unanimously by Nicholas and the council to draw up a confession of faith for Berenger, who signed it publicly and confirmed his adherence to it by a solemn oath. In this confession there was, among other tenets equally absurd, the following declaration, that the bread and wine, after consecration, were not only a sacrament, but also the real body and blood of Jesus Christ; and that this body and blood were handled by the priests and consumed by the faithful, and not in a sacramental sense,

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* Moleon, Voyages Liturgiques, p. 130, cited by Mosheim, ii. 568.

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but in reality and truth, as other sensible objects are. This doctrine was so monstrously nonsensical, and was such an impudent insult upon the very first principles of reason,” &c.

P. 35.“ En faisant chanceler Gregoire V11. sur la chaire de St. Pierre par des doutes d'éclat, qui malgré sa decision, rendent sa foi très-incertaine.”—It is a memorable circumstance in the history of the dispute about transubstantiation, that pope Gregory VII. revoked the confession signed, and approved by Nicholas II., and allowed Berenger to draw up a new declaration of his sentiments; a circumstance on which Mosheim offers a remark that deserves the attention of those who contend for the infallibility of popes or councils. “It is worthy of observation,” says this historian, “ that Gregory VII., whose zeal in extending the jurisdiction, and exalting the authority of the Roman pontiffs, surpassed that of all his predecessors, acknowledged, at least tacitly, by this step, that a pope and council might err, and had erred in effect:-how otherwise could he allow Berenger to renounce a confession of faith, that had been solemnly approved and confirmed hy Nicholas II. in a Roman council ?”

That pope Gregory VII. entertained doubts upon the subject of transubstantiation, or rather that he discouraged all curious researches, and

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