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enumeration of the countries of Asia, should wholly pretermit the mention of Æolis and Ionia; but that he comprehended them under the names of Mysia and Lydia: in which we see Adramyttium, and all the other cities downward unto Ephesus, to be placed by Scylax in his Periplus.

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of the Lydian Asia, and the seven metropolitical cities thereof.

That heretofore Lydia was called Meonia, and the Lydians termed Meonians: we read in Herodotus“, Diodorus Siculus", Dionysius Afer, Strabod, Pliny®, Stephanus Byzantinus', and others. And that Meonia was in the days of Homer named Asia, and the inhabitants thereof by Callinus (another poet, elderh than Archilochus) in the Ionian dialect termed 'Ησιονήες for 'Ασιονείς or Asians ; we find to have been the opinion of Demetrius Scepsius, who was equal in time unto Crates and Aristarchus the grammarian. Whereunto we may also add that of Euripides, in his Bacchæ :

'Ασίας από γάς ιερόν Τμώλον
'Αμείψασα.

together with that which is related by Stephanus Byzan

2 Οι Λυδοί, Μήονες εκαλεϋντο το πάλαι επί δε Λυδού τού "Ατυος έσχον την επωνυμίην, μεταβαλόντες το ούνομα. Ηerodot. lib. 7. sec. 74. pag. 542. 'Από τευ ο δήμος Λύδιος εκλήθη ο πάς ούτος, πρότερον Μήων καλεόμενος. Ιd. lib. 1. sec. 7. pag.

4. b Tών ποτέ Μηόνων, νύν δε Λυδών ονομαζομένων. Diodor. lib. 4.

• Μηονίη δ' επί τησιν, επ' αντολίην τετάνυσται Τμώλή υπ' ήνεμόεντι. Dionys. in Periegesi.

4 Λυδοί, οι τότε Μήονες. Strabo, lib. 13. pag. 877.
e Lydia, Mæonia ante appellata. Plin. lib. 5. cap. 29.

(Μαιονία, η Λυδία. Stephan. et vice versa, in Greco-Latino Cyrilli Glossario. Λυδία, Μαonia.

8 Λέγοντος δε του Καλλίνου την έφοδος των Κιμερίων επί τούς 'Ησιονήας γεγονέναι, καθ' ήν αι Σάρδεις εάλωσαν, εικάζουσιν οι περί τον Σκήψιον ιαστι λέγεσθαι 'Ησιονείς, τους 'Ασιονείς. Τάχα γάρ ή Μηονία, φησιν, 'Ασία ελέγετο καθ' ό και "Ομηρος είρηκεν. Strabo, lib. 13. pag. 930, 931. h Id. lib. 14. pag. 958.

Η Ιd. lib. 13. pag. 907.

. II

tinusk, Suidas', and the great Etymologist; that upon this Tmolus there was a city of Lydia seated, which had the name of Asia: and by Strabom, that betwixt the two Lydian mountains of Tmolus and Messogis lay the great Caystrian plain, which Homer calleth the Asian field, in that verse of the second of the Iliads :

'Ασίφ εν λειμώνι, Καστρίου αμφί ρέεθρα.

to which Virgil also hath relation in that of the first of his Georgicks :

et quæ Asia circum Dulcibus in stagnis rimantur prata Caystri :

and in the seventh of the Æneid :

sonat amnis, et Asia longe Pulsa palus.

.

Whereunto the testimony of Eunapius may be referred likewise, who speaking of that admirably learned gentlewoman Sosipatra, saith that “ she was of that Asia which is about Ephesus, where the river Cayster running through the country, giveth his name to the plain by which it passeth."

It is further also reported by Strabo, that ino this plain

k 'Ασία πολις Λυδίας παρά το Τμώλω, εν ή τρίχορδος ευρέθη κιθάρα. Stephan. de urbib. in 'Ασία.

' Eίρηται δε Ασιάτης ή τρίχορδος κιθάρα, ότι εν τη Ασία πόλει της Λυδίας (κειμένη εν Τμώλω της Λυδίας) πρώτον ευρέθη. Suid. in 'Ασία, et etymologic. in 'Ασιάτις.

m Το δε Καύστριανω πεδίω μεταξύ πίπτοντι της του μεσογειότητος (leg. Μεσσωγίδος) και του Τμώλου, συνεχές εστί πρός έω το Κιλβιανόν πεδιον. Strabo, lib. 13. pag. 933. Από δε τριάκοντα σταδίων της Νύσης υπερβάσι Τμώλον το όρος και την Μεσσωγίδα επί τα προς τον νότον μέρη, καλείται τόπος Λειμών. Ιd. lib. 14. pag. 961. Καύστριος ποταμός της Λυδίας, περι Μίλητον πλησίον Λυδίας παρ' δ και ο "Ασιος λειμών. Vet. scholiast. Aristophanis, in Acharnen.

η "Ην εκ της περί "Έφεσον 'Ασίας, όσην Καύστρος ποταμός έπιών και διαρρέων γήν την επωνυμίαν άφ' εαυτού το πεδίο δίδωσι. Εunap. Sardian. in vita Edesii.

ο Τούτον δε τον λειμώνα ονομάζειν την ποιητήν φασίν, όταν φη, 'Ασίφ

.

near unto the banks of the river Cayster, the inhabitants used to show the chapels dedicated to the honour of Caystrius, and of one Asias, whom the Etymologist noteth to have been sometime king of Lydia, and to have given the name unto this Asian field; or, as the Lydians9 themselves would have it, to the whole land of Asia : alleging further, that from this Asias, the son of Cotys, the son of Maneus, they had a tribe in their head city Sardis, which they called 'Ασιάδα, as is recorded by Herodotus.

Whether from this Asias the continent of Asia did take his denomination, or from the forementioned city of Lydia, or from Asia the wife of Prometheus, or from some other original, Stephanus Byzantinus leaveth us to inquire. But beside that the first vowel in Homer's Asia is long, and in the greater Asia (which Stephanus' acknowledgeth him to have been ignorant of) is of a short quantity: no man can doubt, but the derivation of the name of Asia from a Lydian city, or from a Lydian king and hero, is far more properly applyable to Lydia itself, than to the whole continent either of the greater or the lesser Asia. For that Lydia was formerlyu called Asia, is directly affirmed by the ancient scholiast of Apollonius Rhodius: and that the Asia mentioned in the New Testament was comprehended within the bounds of Lydia (containing in it, according to the above confirmed description, Æolis and Ionia) will quickly appear to those that carefully compare the Acts of the Apostles and the book of the Revelation together.

εν λειμώνι: δεικνύντες Καστρίου και Ασίου τινός ήρωα, και τον Καύστρον πλησίον απορρέοντα. Strabo, lib. 14. pag. 961. "Ετεροι δε των ρηθέντων ηρώων, την μεν 'Ασίαν Κότυος ιστoρoύσιν υιόν, τον δέ Καύστρον Πενθεσιλείας υιόν λέγουσι δε και άρξαι Λυδιας τον 'Ασίαν. Εustath. in liad. β. pag. 254. edit. Roman.

Ρ 'Έκλήθη 'Ασίας και λειμών, από 'Ασίου του Κότυος, ός ήν βασιλεύς Λυδίας. Εtymologic. magn. in "Aσιος.

9 Και τούτου μεν μεταλαμβάνονται του ονόματος Λυδοί φάμενοι επί 'Ασιέω, τού Κότυος, του Μάνεω, κεκλήσθαι την Ασίην, άλλ' ουκ επί της Προμηθέος 'Ασίας από του και την εν Σάρδεσι φυλήν κεκλήσθαι Ασιάδα. Herodot. lib. 4. sec. 45. pag. 300.

r'Ασία ή ήπειρος, οι μεν από πόλεως Λυδίας, οι δε από 'Ασίου του Λυδού, ή εκ του Προμεθέως γυναικός, ή από την πολλήν άσιν έχειν τουτέστιν ίλύν. Stephan. de Urbib. in 'Ασία.

'Αγνοεί γαρ "Ομηρος την Ασίαν, ώς και την Ευρώπην. Ιd. ibid. * Yet it is long in "Ασις : whereof Stephanus, in 'Ασία λέγεται και "Ασις. 'Ισθμός άνω τέταται τις υπέρτατος "Ασιδος αίης" for so the place is to be restored out of Dionysius: whose verse this is, in his Periegesis, as those others also of the river Tanais. "Ος τε και Ευρώπης αποτέμνεται "Ασιδος αίης. 'Ες δύσιν Ευρώπην, ές δ' αυγάς "Ασιδα γαίαν. So Ovid likewise lib. 5. Metamorphos. Jam super Europen sublimis et Asida terram : and lib. 9. of Miletus

et in Aside terra Monia constituis.

In the sixteenth chapter of the Acts, the journey of St. Paul and his company is by St. Luke thus described : “ When they had gone throughout Phrygia and the region of Galatia, and were forbidden of the Holy Ghost to preach the word in Asia; after they were come to Mysia, they assayed to go into Bithynia: but the Spirit suffered them not. And they passing by Mysia, came down to Troas." Where it may be observed, that the greater Phrygia, (through which they passed into Galatia) and Mysia Olympena (which was next adjoining unto Bithynia) and Hellespont, wherein Troas was situated, being all of them parcels of the Asia by the Romans properly so called, are yet expressly distinguished from Asia, in this more strict sense so denominated; as Caria likewise, wherein Miletus stood, appeareth to be by what we read in Acts, chap. 20. ver. 16, 17.

And as these are thus exempted by St. Luke; so the rest that remain of the proper Asia, together with the seven Churches of Asia mentioned in the Revelation of St. John, are all of them comprehended within the limits of that Lydian Asia, whereof we have spoken. For, that Pergamus was a city of Lydia, is plainly affirmed by Xenophon": to whom Aristotle also may be added, in his book περί θαυμασίων ακουσμάτων, where he speaketh of a war sometime raised εν τοίς περί Λυδίαν μετάλλοις τοις περί Πέργαμον. That Smyrna at first was possessed by

u 'Agia a pórepov kaleiro Avõía. Scholiast. Apollon. Argonaut. lib, 2.

* Εις Καΐκου πεδίον ελθόντες, Πέργαμον καταλαμβάνουσι της Λυδίας. Xenoph. de exped. Cyr. lib. 7.

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