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that there was then a standing president over the rest of the pastors of Ephesus, and he the very same (as learned Doctor Rainolds' addeth) with him whom afterward the fathers called bishop, may further be made manifest, not only by the succession of the first bishops of that church, but also by the clear testimony of Ignatius; who, within no greater compass of time than twelve years afterwards, distinguisheth the singular and constant president thereof, from the rest of the number of the presbyters, by appropriating the name of bishop unto him.
As for the former, we find it openly declared in the general council of Chalcedon, by Leontius bishop of Magnesia, that from. Timothy (and so from the days of the apostles) there had been a continued succession of seven and twenty bishops, all of them ordained in Ephesus. Of which number the angel of the church of Ephesus, mentioned in the Revelation, must needs be one: whether it were Timothy himself, as some conceive, or one of his next successors, as others rather do imagine.
For that Timothy had been some time the poeotws" (which is the appellation that Justin Martyrs, in his second apology for Christians, and Dionysiush of Corinth not long after him, in his epistle to the church of Athens, and Marcellus' bishop of Ancyra in his letters to Julius bishop of Rome, do give unto a bishop) or antistes, or
< Conference with Hart, chap. 8. divis. 3.
1 'Aπό του αγίου Τιμοθέου μέχρι νύν είκοσι επτά επίσκοποι εγένοντο, πάντες εν Εφέσω εχειροτονήθησαν. Concil. Chalcedon. Act. 11.
e Vid. Perer. in Apocalyps. cap. 2. disp. 2. Alcasar. Proæm. in cap. 2. et 3. Apocal. notat. 1. et Petr. Halloix. Notat. in vit. Polycarp. cap. 7.
Notandum est ex hoc loco, Timotheum in Ephesino presbyterio tum fuisse + PoE otwtà (id est antistitem) ut vocat Justinus. Bez. annotat. in 1 Tim. chap. 5. ver. 19.
& Qui politiæ causa reliquis fratribus in cætu præerat (quem Justinus Tėv POEOTŵra vocat) peculiariter dici episcopus cæpit. Id. in Philipp. chap. 1. ver. 1.
" Dionys. Corinth. in epist. ad Athenienses, eodem sensu Publium martyrem nominat προεστώτα αυτών, quo proximum ejus successorem Quadratum επίσKotov aŭtūv. apud Eusebium, lib. 4. histor. Kep. ky.
* Δεινά κατά τε τών του θεού εκκλησιών, και ημών των προεστώτων autūV Tetoluýkası, Marcell. Ancyran. apud Epiphanium, hæres. 72.
president of the Ephesine presbytery, is confessed by Beza himself; and that he was ordained the first bishop of the church of the Ephesians, we do not only read in the subscription of the second epistle to Timothy, and the ecclesiastical history of Eusebiusk, but also in two ancient treatises concerning the martyrdom of Timothy; the one nameless in the library of Photius', the other bearing the name of Polycrates”, even of the Polycrates, who was not only himself bishop of this church of Ephesus, but born also within six, or seven and thirty years after St. John wrote the forenamed epistle unto the angel of that church, as it appeareth by the years he was of, when he wrote that epistle unto Victor bishop of Rome, wherein he maketh mention of “ seven" kinsmen of his who had been bishops," he himself being the eighth.
I come now to the testimony of Ignatius, whom Theodoret', and FelixP bishop of Rome, and John the chronographer of Antioch, report to have been ordained bishop of Antioch by St. Peter in special, Chrysostom (who was a presbyter of the same church) by the apostles in general; and without all controversy did sit in that see, the very same time wherein that epistle unto the angel of the Church of Ephesus was commanded to be written.
In the Isle of Patmos had St. John his Revelation ma
* Euseb. hist. lib. 3. keo. d. 1 "Οτι πρώτον Τιμόθεον η παρούσα συγγραφή φησιν 'Εφέσου επισκοπή
Et post. "Οτι ο απόστολος Τιμόθεος υπό του μεγάλου Παύλου και χειροτονείται της 'Εφεσίων μητροπόλεως επίσκοπος και ενθρονίζεται. Phot. bibliot. num. 254.
m Polycrat. de martyrio Timothei : inter vitas sanctorum edit. Lovanii anno 1485.
η Επτά μέν ήσαν συγγενείς μου επίσκοποι, εγώ δε όγδοος. Polycrat. epist. ad Victorem : apud Euseb. lib. 5. hist. Kep. KE.
o Theodoret. in dialogo 1. sive 'Atpéntys.
p Felix III. in epist. ad Zenonem imp. recitat. in V. synodo Constantinopol. Act. 1. (tom. 2. concilior. pag. 220. edit. Binnii, anno 1606.) 9 Johan. Malela Antiochenus, chronic. lib. 10. MS.
Παρά των αγίων εκείνων την αρχήν ταύτην ενεχειρίσθη, και αι των μακαρίων Αποστόλων χείρες της ιεράς εκείνης ήψαντο κεφαλής. Jo. Chrysost. in Ignatii Encomio.
nifested unto him, “ towards the end of the empire of Domitian," as Irenæus testifieth ; or the fourteenth year of his government, as Eusebiust and Hierome specify it. From thence there are but twelve years reckoned unto the tenth of Trajan, wherein Ignatius, in that last journey which he made for the consummation of his glorious martyrdom at Rome, wrote another epistle unto the self same church of Ephesus. In which he maketh mention of their then bishop Onesimus, as it appears both by Eusebius“ citing this out of it, and by the epistle itself yet
In this epistle to the Ephesians, Ignatius having acknowledged that their numerous" multitude was received by him in the person of their bishop Onesimus, and blessed God for granting unto them such a bishop as he was: doth afterwards put them in mind of their dutyy in concurring with him, as he sheweth their worthy presbytery did, being “so” conjoined,” as he saith, “ with their bishop, as the strings are with the harp :” and toward the end exhorteth them to “ obeya both the bishop and the presbytery, with an undivided mind.”
In the same journey wrote Ignatius also an epistle unto the church of Smyrna, another of the seven, unto whom those letters are directed in St. John's Revelation, wherein he also saluteth their bishop and presbytery, exhorting
• Προς το τέλει της Δομετιανού αρχής. Iren. advers. hæres. lib. 5. cap. 30. op. pag. 330.
: Euseb. chron. Hier. catal. scriptor. ecclesiast. in Johanne. u Euseb. lib. 3. hist. Rep. dɛ.
Την πολυπλήθειαν υμών εν ονόματι θεού απείληφα εν 'Ονησίμω. Ignat. epist. ad Ephes. apud Coteler. tom. 2. pag. 12.
* Ευλογητός ο θεός, ο χαρισάμενος υμίν τοιούτοις ούσι τοιούτον έπίσ. KOTOV. Ibid.
Υ "Οθεν υμίν πρέπει συντρέχειν τη του επισκόπου γνώμη. Ιbid.
1 Το γάρ άξιονόμαστον πρεσβυτέριον, άξιον όν του θεού, ούτως συνήρμοσται το επισκόπφ, ώς χορδαι κιθαρά. Ιbid.
* Υπακούοντες των επισκόπο και τη πρεσβυτερίφ απερισπάστω διαvoia. Ibid. pag. 16.
b 'Ασπάζομαι τον αξιόθεον επίσκοπον [υμών Πολύκαρπον] και το θεοTT PETÈS #PeoBuréprov. Id. in epist. ad Smyrn. Ibid. pag. 38.
all the people to “ follow their bishop, as Christ Jesus did his Father, and the presbytery, as the apostles :” and telling them that no man ought either to administer the sacraments, or do any thing appertaining to the church, without the consent of the bishop.
Who this bishop, and what that presbytery was, appeareth by another epistle written a little after from Smyrna, by “ Polycarpuse and the presbyters that were with him," unto the Philippians. And that the same Polycarpus was then also bishop there, when St. John wrote unto “ the angel of the church of Smyrna," who can better inform us than Irenæus? who did not only know those worthy men, “who succeeded Polycarpus in his see;” but also was present, when he himself did discourse of his conversation with St. John, and of those things which he heard from those who had seen our Lord Jesus.
« Polycarpush,” saith he, “ was not only taught by the apostles, and conversed with many of those that had seen Christ, but also was by the apostles constituted in Asia bishop of the church which is in Smyrna: whom we ourselves also did see in our younger age; for he continued
Πάντες των επισκόπη ακολουθείτε, ώς ο Χριστός Ιησούς τω Πατρί, ap. Cotel. tom. 2. pag. 36. και το πρεσβυτερίφ ως τους αποστόλοις. Ignat. in epist. ad Smyrn. ibid.
4 Μηδείς χωρίς επισκόπου τι πρασσέτω των ανηκόντων εις την εκκλησίαν, εκείνη βεβαία ευχαριστία ηγείσθω, ή υπό τον επίσκοπον ούσα, η ή αν αυτός επιτρέψη. Ουκ εξόν εστι χωρίς του επισκόπου ούτε βαπτίζειν, &c. Ιbid.
• Πολύκαρπος, και οι συν αυτώ Πρεσβύτεροι, τη εκκλησία του θεού τη παροικούση Φιλίπποις. Polycarp. epist. ad Philippens. Ιbid. pag. 190.
1 Οι μέχρι νύν διαδεδεγμένοι τον του Πολυκάρπου θρόνον. Iren. advers. heres. lib. 3. cap. 3. op. pag. 177.
& Id. in epist. ad Florinum : apud Euseb. lib. 5. KED. K. et ad Victorem, ibid. κεφ. κστ.
h Και Πολύκαρπος δε ου μόνον υπό αποστόλων μαθητευθείς, και συναναστραφείς πολλούς τοίς τον Χριστόν έωρακόσιν, αλλά και υπό αποστόλων κατασταθείς εις την Ασίαν εν τη εν Σμύρνη εκκλησία επίσκοπος, δν και ημείς έωράκαμεν εν τη πρώτη ημών ηλικία επί πολύ γάρ παρέμεινε, και πάνυ γηραλέος ήν ενδόξως και επιφανέστατα μαρτυρήσας, εξήλθε τού βίου. Iren. lib. 3. cap. 3. pag. 176. Vid. et Euseb. lib. 3. hist. κεφ. λε.
long: and being very aged, he most gloriously and nobly suffering martyrdom departed this life.”
Now being ordained bishop of Smyrna by the apostles, who had finished their course, and departed out of this life before St. John, the last survivor of them, did write his Revelation: who but he could there be meant by “the angel of the church in Smyrna ?" in which that he still held his episcopal office unto the time of his martyrdom, which fell out seventy-four years afterward, may sufficiently appear by this testimony, which the brethren of the church of Smyrna, who were present at his suffering, gave unto him: “ Hei was the most admirable man in our times, an apostolical and prophetical doctor, and bishop of the Catholic Church which is in Smyrna.” Whereunto we may add the like of Polycrates bishop of Ephesus, who lived also in his time, and in his neighbourhood, affirming Polycarpusk to have been both bishop and martyr in Smyrna. So saith he in his synodical epistle, directed unto Victor bishop of Rome, about twenty-seven years after the martyrdom of Polycarpus, he himself being at that time sixty-five years of age.
About the very same time wherein Polycarpus wrote this epistle unto Victor, did Tertullian publish his book of prescriptions against heretics, wherein he avoucheth against them, that “ as the church of Smyrna had Polycarpus placed there by John, and the Church of Rome Clement ordained by Peter, so the rest of the churches also did show what bishops they had received by the appointment of the apostles, to traduce the apostolical seed unto them." And so before him did Irenæus urge against
: Ούτος γέγονεν ο θαυμασιώτατος εν τοις καθ' ημάς χρόνους, διδάσκαλος αποστολικός και προφητικός, γενόμενος επίσκοπος τε της εν Σμύρνη kaolens éxrlnoias. Smyrnens. eccles. epist. de martyrio Polycarp. Euseb. lib. 4. hist. KEQ. 101.
* Πολύκαρπος, ο εν Σμύρνη και επίσκοπος και μάρτυς. Polycrat. epist. ad Victorem : apud Euseb. lib. 5. hist. Reg. Kö.
| Sicut Smyrnæorum ecclesia Polycarpum a Johanne conlocatum refert ; si. cut Romanorum Clementem a Petro ordinatum edit: proinde (or, perinde) utique et cæteræ exhibent quos, ab apostolis in episcopatum constitutos, apostolici seminis traduces habent. Tertul. de præscript. cap. 32. Vid. et ejusd. lib. 4 contra Marcion. cap. 5.