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majority, and was, the next day, carried up to the lords. There it met its doom, in consequence, of the hostility to it from a certain quarter,, where, powerful influence was most unconstitu tionally exerted. The rumour of the day was, that the king signified to Lord Temple, on the 11th December, in a closet audience, his disapprobation of the bill, and authorised him to declare the same to such persons as he might think fit; that a written note was put into his hands, in which his majesty declared, "that he should deem those who should vote for it not only not his friends, but his enemies; and that if he (Lord Temple) could put this in stronger words, he had full authority to do so." The consequence was, that this was communicated to many, and the bill was lost on a second reading. Meanwhile Mr. Baker, in the house of commons, brought forward a motion on the same day to take into consideration the reports above alluded to; those reports were currently believed by the public, and had made a great impression; but he condemned the subject they alluded to under two heads of criminality, first, the giving secret advice to the crown; and secondly, the use that had been made of his majesty's name for the purpose of influencing the votes of members of parliament in a matter depending before them. After some very sound constitutional remarks Mr. Baker concluded 129: qui fcH

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VOL. II.

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by moving That it is now necessary to declare, that to report any opinion, or pretended opinion, of his majesty upon any bill or other proceeding depending in either House of parliament, with a view to influence the votes of the members, is a high crime and misdemeanor, derogatory to the honour of the crown, a breach of the fundamen→ fal privileges of parliament, and subversive of the constitution." The motion was seconded by Lord Maitland, and strongly opposed by Mr. Pitt, who concluded his speech with reproaching the minis ters for their base attachment to their offices, though, upon their own state of the case, they had lost their power, and no longer possessed the confidence of their prince. On Wednesday, 17th, the India bill was rejected by the lords, and at twelve o'clock on the following night a messenger delivered to the two secretaries of state his ma jesty's orders, "that they should deliver up the seals of their office, and send them by the under 'secretaries, (Mr. Frazier and Mr. Nepean,) as a personal interview on the occasion would be disagreeable to him." Mr. Pitt was then appointed prime minister, and commenced that long career which has been considered a blessing or a curse to the country, according to the political medium through which it is viewed. Its real character cannot yet be pronounced, for many of his plans are still in operation; and it is only in remote and final consequences that we can decide upon the real qualities of particular measures.

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As soon as the rumour of these changes ar-` rived in Ireland the parliament was adjourned; and as soon as the change had actually taken place Lord Northington sent in his resignation. It was accepted on the 7th January, but his successor, the Duke, of Rutland, was not appointed till the 24th February, 1784. The house stood adjourned till the 20th January, on which day it met, when a further adjournment was moved by the attorney-general, which was carried by a large majority. When the Duke of Rutland's appointment was officially announced, Mr. William Brabazon Ponsonby moved a vote of thanks to Lord Northington, which produced rather an angry debate. It was urged in his lordship's favour that he had refused the additional allowance of 40001. per ann. and that he had not added to the public debt. The vote passed without amendment by a majority of 44.

The Duke of Rutland succeeded the Earl of Northington, and with him commenced Mr. Pitt's system, which ended in the incorporation of the two countries *. His grace was young and not

* Very sanguine hopes were entertained at first from this ministry. The people of Ireland had suspected the sincerity of the coalition administration, but from its successors they expected reduction in the army, retrenchment in the civil expenditure, reform in parliament, and protecting duties, i. e. heavy duties upon the importation of those manufactures which Ireland produced, so as to compel the people to use. the home manufacture, and thus give employment to the people.

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conversant in business, but he was amiable, generous, and convivial; and he became, from his: first coming here, the favourite of the higher or ders of the state, and would have been equally so with the lower, had not one or two questions been agitated directly after his arrival, which in parlia ment excited no commotion, but were eagerly laid hold on by some untoward spirits without doors to aid the cause of mischief and sedition, which they so perversely maintained. The duke's court was magnificent; a succession of various enters tainments took place, over which the presence of the Duchess of Rutland, then confessedly one of the most beautiful women perhaps in Europe, diffused an animation and radiance totally unexampled. Social pleasures (so congenial to the Irish) were agreeably cultivated, the good cheer of the table was applauded even by its inost renowned votaries, and altogether it was a season of much indulgence. His secretary was Mr. Orde, (afterwards Lord Bolton,) and who attended to business with more assiduity than the delicacy of his health would always permit.

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When the house met, according to adjournment, a congratulatory address was unanimously voted to the Duke of Rutland. On one day, thirteen petitions from counties and populous cities were presented to the house of commons by their respective representatives, praying a reform in the representation of parliament. Mr. Flood also, who had now returned from England, moved

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for leave to bring in a bill upon the same subject. It was vehemently urged by Mr. Flood that a re'form in the representation was necessary, and he was supported, though not warmly, by Mr. Grattan. The numbers were 85 for reform and 159 against it; and thus the new administration was discovered to be as hostile to this great measure as the -preceding one had been *.

In the course of this session also Mr. Grattan brought the revenue, and Mr. Gardiner the commerce, under the notice of parliament. These, together with a motion for restraining the licence of the press, in consequence of some scandalous and seditious attacks in the newspapers upon several of the members, were the only other measures of importance agitated during this session. On the 4th of May, 1784, the Duke of Rutland prorogued it in a speech of much conciliation.

Meanwhile the people without doors continued factious and discontented. Agitators still impelled the 'multitude, and who, wishing for something more than happiness, and dissatisfied with liberty, filled the country with their seditious clamours. When a nation, or the majority of a nation, is determined to quarrel with existing institutions, every thing is made, by ingenious but

*Two able speeches against reform were delivered by Mr. Moncke Mason and Sir Hercules Langrishe. The former ar gued upon the principle with much acuteness, and the latter upon the specific provisions of Mr. Flood's bill with great enthusiasm.

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