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bore to press their claiins as long as that obstacle should continue. They were patient and submişsiye: and waited till the course of events might place the executive in hands, which they had been long taught to believe would dispense the blessings they sought, with a liberal and unsparing bøụnty. The era, towards which they so impatiently looked, arrived; the calamity which placed the executive power in the person of the Prince Regent, while it affected them as every Joyal subject should be affected, could not but fill them with rejoicing as calculated to accom-. plish their most ardent wishes. New efforts were immediately made. The appeal to parliament was again þeard: and the illustrious patriot who had sp often raised his voice in behalf of his country, once more took bis post. Prompt and immediate success was not expected; but as little was that sudden eclipse of the royal countenance expected. One remarkable feature, bowever, attended every renewal of the question; the catboļics gained advocates and lost foes. Such must always be

the effect of deliberate discussion: prejudices are dissipated by inquiry; errors are removed by investigation. Many important points were myXually conceded, and contending parties were united by the liberal spirit of conciliation. Mų. Grattan's bill of last session (1813) sustained a 'nopinal rather than a real defeat: and we may close this portion of our work with the pleasing

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Probability of their final success. prospect of seeing the great measure of catholic emancipation accomplished upon views of an enlarged and salutary policy, which, while it will bind Ireland to us by affection and interest, will promote the general and lasting welfare of the empire at large.

BOOK II.

A GEOGRAPHICAL AND STATISTICAL SUMMARY

OF IRELAND.

CHAP. .

A geographical and statistical summary of Ireland

-Climate and seasons-Face of the country Soil and agriculture-Rivers--Lakes-Moun. tains--Forests- Bogs- Natural curiosities Mineralogy--Antiquities--Religion - Population --Revenue - Education Universities op Dublin Society - Cities - Rivers Manufactures and commerce.

In Chap. I. Book I. we have entered into a few geographical details as preliminary matter to the

eneral story; and as it would be superfluous to recapitulate them here, we shall merely refer the reader to that portion of our work for information respecting the discovery, name, extent, and political division of Ireland, proceeding now to a brief but accurate detail of other particulars connected with this division.

Climate and seasons.

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CLIMATE AND SEASONS.

As Ireland lies nearly in the same parallel withi England, there is not perhaps any great difference in the climate. The mean temperature of the north is about 48; of the middle 50; of the south 52 of Fahrenheit. In a paper published in the 7th vol. of the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy, the Rev. Mr. Hamilton endeavours to shew, that the climate of Ireland has of late

years undergone a considerable change; that a more general equability of temperature prevails throughout the year, the summers being less warm, and the winters milder and opener. The author's theory may be thus briefly stated. The winds which most usually prevail in England blow from the westward; they are mild in their tempera-, ture and moist in their nature. Being therefore highly favourable to animal as well as vegetable life, to them, among other natural causes, may be ascribed the increasing population of Ireland, and, the uncommon fertility of its soil. Of late years, these winds, from whatever cause, have assumed more than common violence, which the author endeavours to prove by observations made on the trees of the country, the sands of the coast, and the tides of the ocean. To this cause he ascribes un, successful attempts made to plant on high and elevated situations. He gives some instances also

of places buried under sand, where the vestiges of towns and villages seem to attest that they were , once the residence of men... Of late years extraordinary high tides have been more frequent than formerly; public roads have been destroyed by them, walls beat down, and other damage occasioned; all evidence of increasing tides, and the greater frequency of storms. He, however, concludes, that the annual quantity of heat received in the country in the present day is not less thanit was in former days. If the prevalent winds of a country blow over an ocean situated in its parallel, that country will be relatively denominated temperate; it will be free from all extremes; the heats of summer and the colds of winter will be checked by sea breezes of a contrary property, and the land, influenced by the neighbouring element, must, more or less, partake in its equability of temperature. Such is the case in almost all the islands in the world, and such at all times has been the peculiar character of Ireland. Fifty years have elapsed since the river Foyle has been completely frozen over at Derry. It is also ob- : served, that the Thames is less frozen of late years than formerly. The summers in Ireland are colder, and the winters warmer, than they were some years ago; hence hemp does not grow so well, and the ancient apiaries of the country, önce so celebrated, are nearly extinct. Such are the outlines of Mr. Hamilton's hypothesis.

Respecting the climate of Ireland in general

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