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no satisfactory conclusions can be formed, as the subject has been but little studied.


In considering the face of the country it must be remembered, that Ireland forms a striking contrast to Scotland, being mostly level, fertile, and abundant in pasturage. The chains of hills, for they can hardly aspire to the name of mountains, are few and unimportant. Donegal, Fermanagh, and Londonderry, all in the north, are the most elevated districts. There are a few eminences

in the south.


Arthur Young, and a recent writer (Mr. Wakefield), have both very ably discussed these topics. Their extensive researches cannot be here followed. It will suffice for the general nature of our plan to present a few positive conclusions, deduced from the laborious and minute inquiries of those writers. The quantity of cultivated land in Ireland exceeds, in proportion, that of England. The soil is rocky, stones generally appearing on the surface, and yet without any injury to the fertility. The stones are generally calcareous, and appear at no great depth, even in the most flat and fertile parts, as Limerick, Tipperary, and Meath. The climate being more moist than that Y



of England, the verdure never appears parched with heat *. Tillage is little understood, even in the best corn counties, as Louth, Kildare, Carlow, and Kilkenny, turnips and clover being almost unknown: the wheat sown upon fallow, and followed by several crops of spring corn. The farmer is dreadfully oppressed by the vile system of middle-men, who rent farms from the landlord, and let them to the real occupiers, who, as well as the proprietors, suffer greatly by this strange practice. Notwithstanding these abuses, however, Ireland is a most fertile country, and since encouragement has been given to agriculture, has become a treasury of grain. Even the bogs, among which that of Allen extend 80 miles, and is computed to contain 300,000 acres, might generally be drained and converted into fertile meadows. Lime-stone gravel is a manure peculiar to Ireland, having, on uncultivated land, the same effect as lime, and on all soils it is beneficial.


The chief rivers of Ireland are the Shannon, the Barrow, the Blackwater, the Bann, and the


Dr. Martin Lister, who visited France in 1698, and published his Travels, speaking of the difference of climate between Paris and London, says, " From the quantity of rain with us our fields are much greener; and it was a pleasing surprise to me at my return, sailing up the river Thames, to see our green fields and pastures on every side; but we pay dearly for it in agues and coughs, and rheumatic distempers."

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Foyle. The Liffey is an inconsiderable stream, and ennobled only by the capital.

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The lakes of Ireland are numerous, and some



of them extensive. The chief one of fresh water is that of Erne, which exceeds 30 British miles in length and 12 in its greatest breadth. The next is Lake Neagh, about 22 miles in length and 12 in breadth. Unlike Loch Erne, which is studded with islands, the Neagh composes one vast sheet of water. The beautiful and interesting Lake of Killarney in the S. W. must not, be omitted. It abounds with romantic views, and is fringed with the arbutus, no where else a native of the British dominions. This is almost the only lake in the south of Ireland, and the observation may be extended to the east. On the N. W. are the lakes of Eask, Trierty, Melvin, Macnean, and Gill. That of Allan is the chief source of the Shannon. Further to the west are two considerable lakes, the Conn and the Mask; nor must those of Corrafin be forgotten.


The elevations in Ireland are not very impor tant. An upland ridge divides the country from the N. E. to the S. W. and gives birth to several

of the rivers. The Irish hills generally form short lines, or detached groupes. The following is an accurate estimate of the heights of the chief Irish mountains:

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Scarcely the semblance of a forest remains in Ireland. Boate long since observed, that the woods have been greatly diminished since the entrance of the English, partly from the extension of tillage, and partly from the necessity of opening up the recesses of banditti; yet, he informs-us, that considerable woods existed in his time in Wicklow, Wexford, and Carlow, Kerry, Tipperary, and Cork. There were extensive forests also in the province of Ulster; in the counties of Donegal, Tyrone, Fermanagh, and Antrim. The western province of Connaught, being the most



remote from the new colony, was in his time stored with trees; but the most noted forests were in the counties of Mayo and Sligo.


The moors or bogs form a remarkable feature of this country. Boate divides them into four classes. 1. The grassy, in which the water being concealed by herbage, they become extremely peilous to travellers; some of these are dry in the summer. 2. The pools of water and mire. 3. What he terms hassocky bogs, or shallow lakes studded with tufts of rushes, which are chiefly found in the province of Leinster, especially in King's and Queen's Counties. 4. The peat moors. The formation of bogs seems to be owing, in many instances, to the moisture retained in those parts of forests which chance to form hollow receptacles, the fall of the leaves forming a vegetable earth, supersaturated with moisture, so that the trees themselves in time fall a prey. Ornaments of gold, and other relics of antiquity, have, from time to time, been discovered in the bogs, at great depths; and there are other indications that they are of comparatively recent formation. It is hoped that the hand of industry will in time remove many of these blemishes; and one of the greatest improvements of modern agriculture is that of reclaiming peat moors by means of calca

reous manures.

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