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mean Greek ? He abused PINDAR in newspapers, say, Stop a moment, his Review, as Lord Byron long ago What is all this?” Gentle reader of told him. Is it Latin? Could Sir Blackwood, ignorant of the daily press, James Mackintosh write one hexame- we heartily sympathize with thy feelter? Did Sir James Mackintosh prove ings of astonishment ! himself to be a SCHOLAR by reading Yet the fact, gentle, most gentle the old song about “ Hæc Stúdiu,” &c. reader--the fact is indeed so. the most hacknied quotation in all the reader, Mr Francis Jeffrey, a wellworld, off a paper in his hand, to the known practitioner at a provincial assembled children of the Glasgow ma- bar, but a person whose only acknownufacturers ? Is the “ Vindicio Gal- leged work is the Account of “ Beaulice" a classical work, merely because ty,” not the “ Beauty” in Bracebridgeits title is Latin, and its author a Hall, but the “ Beauty” in Macvey friend and correspondent of Dr Parr? Napier --- this Mr Francis Jeffrey — Is Sir James Mackintosh a David Hume, nay, start not, it is quite true—this merely because he has advertised a identical Francisculus, did really

stand “ History of England ?"

up in a great hall full of children, What, in the name of wonder and yet containing some men, and there admiration, is it that Sir James Mack- and then he did deliberately, and in intosh has done? His “ Vindiciæ Gal- cold blood, utter his opinion, Francis licæ,” is a raw, boyish, flowery rhap- Jeffrey's opinion, as to the relative lisody, of which he himself must long terary merits of Sir James Mackintosh ago be ashamed. His only other ac- and Sir Walter Scott. What the opiknowledged work is an " Introductory nion was, is nothing to our present Lecture," of which he himself wisely purpose ; but, BONA FIDE, if there be thinks little, and will not suffer it to faith in man, he did deliver his opibe reprinted. His contributions to nion ! the Edinburgh Review are dull, hea- There is nothing to go beyond this. vy, lifeless, inert masses of prosing, We have at length reached our ultifor which he is exceedingly glad, no matum. The age of mere brass is doubt, to be paid now and then a few guineas by Mr Francis Jeffrey. But That little Mr Francis Jeffrey,when still the question recurs, " What has seated in his little library, with a little he done ?” And, laying politics out of pair of tallows unsnuffed before him, view, we once more assert, in the face a little red night-cap on his head, and of men and angels, that every man, a little tumbler of hot whisky and waWhig or Tory, who speaks his mind, ter at his elbow, should think himself MUST answer, He has done NO

entitled to say

WE,” and to indite, THING.” It is all in fieri ; it is all on with the air of one having authority, the ipse dixit of Sir James, or on the puffs of books written by Whigs, or ipsi dixerunt of the Whigs. The same published by Constable, or quizzes of Whigs who pronounced Queen Caro- books written by Tories, and publishline to be “pure as unsunned snow," ed not by Constable—this is MUCH; have pronounced that, politics being but still we are accustomed to it, entirely kept out of view, there is no and many other things of the same literary man now living, “ who can be sort, and indignationem minuit usus. preferred, or even compared,"—these But here quite a new picture is openare little Jeffrey's big words—" to Sir ed upon our admiring gaze. Here we James MACKINTOSH!!! Oh! hour of have not only the stimulants of serapture, of glory, of beatitude, for crecy, toddy, and L.1500 per annum “ the men of words and not of deeds!” all awanting, but we have even the Oh! hours of blissful consolation, “ WE," the Editorial Nos," inter “ To Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and desiderandu. “ Farewell, a long fareBrown,

well to all my we-ness ! Here am I Our fathers of the Row."

here I am, good people !-Here am I,

Francis Jeffrey, author of the article Oh, triumph of triumphs! Oh, puff “ Beauty” in the Encyclopedia Britof puffs! Our friend Coulburn is but tannica, and of a note about Coleridge a type of thee, thou puffer of the first and tea-drinking, signed F. J. in the magnitude !.

Edinburgh Review.--Here am I, come But“ stop a moment,” we think we to tell you what are the characters, hear some one that does not read the public and private, of Sir Walter Soott

Over.

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and Sir James Mackintosh. Here am So much for Jeffrey. We are almost I! I tell you that they are both won- sorry to say any thing farther and derful men, and," almost equally my more directly about his successor. Sir friends.”—They admire me, and I ad- James Mackintosh is, no doubt, a man, mire them and myself.—Sir Walter is of very considerable talents. The oria man of the greatest genius now in gin from which he has raised himself existence-indeed he is the greatest is so humble that it must be so; genius that ever did exist—but when indeed, every one disgusting thing you come to speak of learning, accom- about “ the Philosophe Beau of unplishment, &c. &c. the author of the loveable Stael," asserts and proclaims To Vindiciæ Gallicæ" is still the man the magnitude of his merits. We ad. for my money. He wrote that admi- mit them. rable article on Poland in my last We do not say that Sir James is a Number. I am to have another on blockhead ; on the contrary, we conGreece from him for my next Num- sider Mr Jeffrey as a clever man, and ber. Politics should be entirely laid Sir James as able to eat three Jeffreys. out of view in an university ; but I But our respect for Sir James Mackinam sure, that, looking at the whole tosh's talents is founded entirely on public career of my illustrious friend two or three speeches which we have Sir James Mackintosh, and hearing happened to hear him deliver in the what you have heard from me about House of Commons; and our wonder his private purity and amenity, you is simply upon what grounds (these will at once perceive that Sir Walter speeches and all the rest of his politiis, after all, rather a humbug com- cal merits being laid out of view) even pared with him! Vote, vote by all a Francis Jeffrey could dare to talk of means for Sir James-Madame de him as a great man. Stael always said he was one of the He himself speaks more decentlymost penetrating men she had ever he distinctly tells the Glasgow urchins known-do, vote for Sir James, and I (we shall give his own words :) “ In will come to Glasgow, and be present me, gentlemen, you have selected a at his Installation ; and I will come person who has little claim to your with my tail on, like the great Chief- favour beyond the love of letters, a tain of Clanjamphrey, as I am—for I warm attachment to his native counwill make Cockburn, and John Mur- try, and an honest performance of pubray, and Tom Thomson, and Tom- lic duty; for in every other respect I. my Kennedy, come too-and, per- should hold out to you, as a warning, haps, even some graver dunniwassels the unfortunate effect of that variety of my clan, when they are convinced of pursuits which has so long retarded. this is quite an unpolitical business, the execution of the literary projects will also descend from their high of my youth, and has converted into a sphere, and come along with us for period of anxious and fearful labour, once--for they are old, very old the approaches of that age which exfriends of Sir James's—they knew cuses some remissness and industry, him, both of them, when he was only and tempts to some indulgence of reMister James—they knew him ere pose." Upon which text many comWATT was

anged, or GERALD ba- ments might be fastened ; but we nished.”—Upon my faith, Mr Francis, shall content ourselves with just askyour speech was a whacker! and now ing Sir James Mackintosh, firstly, What do say, 'pon honour, that this gloss is he means by his love of letters? Is it an unfair one; or, if you do not dare so indeed that a mere taste for reading, to say any thing of the sort, hear together with an occasional itch for Pope.

scribbling, may constitute a claim to

the Lord Rectorship of the U-niver“ And you, who seek to give and merit sity of Glasgow ? Secondly, How has fame,

Sir James Mackintosh shewn his warm Who boldly bear a critic's noble name, attachment to his native country? Be sure YOURSELF, and your Own

The answer is plain-by writing in the REACH you know, How far YOUR Genius, Taste, and Learn

Edinburgh Review, by presiding at ing go;

the Edinburgh Fox Dinner, and by Launch not beyond your depth, but be

retaining, after an absence of thirty discreet,

years, the charming brogue of " the And mark that point where Brass and County of Nairn. Thirdly, What is BRAVERY meet.

it that entitles Sir James Mackintosh

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sorry for it.

1823.]

Vindiciæ Gaelicue. to represent himself as so eminently frey in his patronage of Sir James distinguished by HONESTYM-in ihe Mackintosh among the boys of Glasdischarge of public duty ? Does he gow, let him look to the Scotch newsmean to insinuate that he is the only papers of the week immediately succeed. honest man, or member of Parliament, ing. He will there see that Sir James now alive ? Pourthly, What is the took the chair at the Fox Dinner in meaning of all that palavering about Edinburgh, and was buttered by Mr retarded projects, and a laborious old Cranstoun for the Vindiciæ Gallica age? Is this the old story hashed up that Sir James, in return, buttered Mr once more ? --Is this still the crambe Cranstoun, declaring the speech in his recocta of “The History of England ?” own laudation to be “one of the most - We fear that such has been Sir beautiful speeches that ever fell from James's weakness, and we are truly human lips.” He will there see, that

Mr Jeffrey (" the delight,” as Sir On the same day when Francis Jef- James expressed it," equally of his frey, Esq., convinced at length, with hearers and readers,”) buttered himPope, that they only should “ censure self, sung palinode, and toasted Rafreely who have written well,” publish- DICAL Reform like a man. He will es an excellent treatise, novel, or poem, there see that Mr Abercrombie but-on that same happy day, will Sir tered Mr John Clerk; and that Mr James Mackintosh, Knight, publish an Cockburn buttered Joseph Hume; excellent history-on that illustrious and that Mr L. Horner buttered Mr day also will Mir Henry Cockburn ut- James Gibson ; and that Sir J. Macter a speech, “ excelled by no speci- kintosh buttered Lord Johnny Russel ; men of forensic eloquence in ancient and that Mr John A. Murray butteror in modern times"--on that ever ed the Lord Rosslynn; and that the glorious day will some Tory master of Lord Glenorchy buttered Sir Ronald the lyre proclaim,

Fergusson ; and that Mr R. Hunter

buttered Mr Henry Brougham ; and “ Sir James genteel, and Jeffrey six feet

that Mr P. Brown buttered Lord high,"

Archibald Hamilton; and that Mr and we be the first, the loudest, and Cranstoun buttered Earl Grey; and the most sincere in applauding his dic- that Major Hay buttered Lord Lanstum. About the same period, some down; and that Dr Thomson buttered Whir will present a petition to the Dugald Stewart ; and that Sir Ronald House of Commons, anent the Regis- Fergusson buttered Rothiemurchus ; ter-Office in Edinburgh--the Scotch and that they all buttered each other, Jury Court will be oppressed with and abused all the world besides, uncases - Professor Leslie will invite Dr til one in the morning ! Olinthus Petre to cards and supper Upright, amiable, enlightened,

- Hogg write another Chaldee MS.- charming, amæne Whigs ! Long may Glengarry establish his title to the such butter be melting on your lips, Lordship of the Isles—and Ensign and such gall boiling in your bosoms! and Adjutant Odoherty sport the grand Long may yefind, in fulsome exchange cross of the Cacique of Poyais, his of flattery among yourselves, the only order.

consolation which universal contempt We had a great many more topics and derision leaves within your reach! to touch upon; but our limits forbid Long, very loug, may Mr Jeffrey puff farther expatiation. If there be any his contributors--and soon, oh very body who wishes to find more evidence soon, may we have “ The History of as to the humbug of the totally unpo- England !" kitical views, which influenced Mr Jef

VoL, XIII.

ANTI-PHRENOLOGIA; at PLAIN STATEMENT OF OBJECTIONS AGAINST THE SYSTEM OF DRS GALL

AND SPURZHEIM. [We have already said, that in our opinion, Fool and Phrenologist are terms as nearly synonimous as can be found in any language. One writer in this work demolished the Edinburgh Phrenological Society, by one article, equal to any thing in Arbuthnot or Swift. The Phrenzied called out against wit, and clamoured for pure argument. Here they have it, and with a vengeance.

c. N.)

Sect. I.-On the Legitimate Province of Reason, and the Nature of Gall and

Spurzheim's pretended experiments. Our assertions, say the phrenolo- and universal, as was ever exercised by gists, relate not to the reasonableness the Pope in the affairs of religion. of hypotheses, but to the correctness of It is undoubtedly true, that obserobservations. It is therefore unphilo- vation and experience form the only sophical to call in question any doc- rational basis of conviction, in all trines of ours, on the ground of their those cases where we can have no apparent absurdity. A fact may be knowledge independently of them. It strange, but it cannot be absurd. And is true, for example, as Mr Combe would not many of the most familiar tells us, that no one who knows the - facts in nature appear, if they were as first rudiments of philosophy would new to the world as those which Gall think of proving by arguments, disreand Spurzheim have discovered, to be garding experiments, that Sir Humjust as wonderful as they? The latter phry Davy has failed in attempting to seem altogether incredible to mere a make any particular discovery in chepriori reasoners, on the very same prin- mistry. For, as we are utterly ignociple on which the fact of water be- rant of the ultimate causes upon which coming solid was deemed incredible by chemical affinity depends, we cannot the Indian king. In the one case, as reasonably argue a priori, against the in the other, statements of facts are probability of any given particles of discredited, only because they are op- matter being united together in one posed, in the absence of experience, to compound, or of their displaying any pre-conceived opinions. A wise man given phenomena when so united. The ought, however, candidly to acknow- general principle that probabilities ledge that he is altogether unqualified must in all such cases, yield to facts, is to judge of the truth or falsehood of indisputed ; it is only in attempting to our system, until he has made our ex- apply that principle to the case of their periments, and determined their re- own peculiar doctrines, that the phrensults.

ologists have erred. Such is the simple statement of an It certainly would be rather foolish argument, which, in one shape or an- for any one to argue a priori against other, presents itself in almost every the probability of Messrs Gall and page of the works of Gall and Spurz- Spurzheim having observed any simheim, and those of Mr George Combe ple facts, relating to peculiar formaand others of their disciples. It may, tions of the human skull, or peculiar indeed, be termed the sole argument manifestations of moral or intellecof the phrenologists: for they have tual character. But, even admitting brought it forward for the avowed pur- that they may have stated many such pose of freeing themselves from the facts correctly in regard to individuals, necessity of using any other general still we may be entitled to deny that reasonings, as well as to shew the folly they have drawn from them any just of all such reasonings, when employed conclusions with respect to mankind in by their opponents. Hence, it has hap- general. Who knows, for example, pened, that their assertions are in ge- whether, for every case brought forneral as purely dogmatical, as if Drs ward by them, there may not be one Gall and Spurzheim were entitled to of an opposite kind, kept in the backsway men's belief in matters of phi- ground? But, besides, it is most evilosophy, with an authority as absolute dent, that when, in order to account for any uncommon appearances which one, to obtain for himself, by perusing he has observed, or thinks he has ob- their works, any more satisfactory exserved, a phrenologist tells us that planation of that signification than is there must exist in the brain a parti- here given by Mr Combe. All that cular organ, and in the mind a parti- can possibly be learnt upon the subject cular faculty, he frames a mere hypo- is, that it is a much more convenient thesis or supposition, which may be sa- term for them than for any one else; tisfactory to himself, but which may and that, what they suppose it to not be so to other people. Perhaps these denote, they attribute, not only those appearances may be better accounted phenomena which result from the for on some other supposition ;-per- action of the mind, or any other way haps they may be utterly unaccounta- from the operation of powers comble in the present state of human know- monly so called, but states of the ledge. To prove that certain unvary- soul in which it is entirely passive, ing correspondences subsist between or qualities which distinguish the inparticular developments of the brain, dividual. It is obvious, therefore, and particular manifestations of hu- that they must either have used the man character, is one thing ; to prove same term indefinitely, in reference that the former indicate distinct corpo- to things which in nature are totally real organs, and the latter distinct men- distinct, viz. powers, feelings, and tal faculties, is another. A huge col- qualities, or else they must have aplection of unequivocal and unvarying plied it to some one airy nothing, the facts, selected at random, and stated product of their own imaginations, by men devoid of all undue attachment --some ignis fatuus of the mind, by to theory, might possibly succeed in which they are at once amused and convincing us, that the shape of a per- misled, amid the eagerness of fancied son's skull is really and truly an index discovery. In the same way, philosoof his mind; but, on the other hand, phers have often been in use to attrireason is not to be so satisfied of the bute to an unknown something, which existence of such faculties and organs they have termed instinct, all actions, as those of covetiveness and individual however various their real nature and ity. Nay, we may quite well conceive origin might be, provided only these of manifestations of mind being use- were unknown to them at the time. fully indicated by the external confi. Hence, as our knowledge of the human guration of parts of the corporeal sys- mind has been increased by reasoning tem reputed to be of a much more and reflection, human instincts have ignoble nature than the brain; but in been found to become gradually fewer that case, the phrenologists themselves in number, until at last they have been would, it is to be feared, be apt to almost altogether discarded ; whereas revolt against any system of “specific those attributed to the inferior ani. faculties” and “distinct organs,” si- mals still remain, because we have it milar to their own.

not in our power to ascertain, by reTwo questions here naturally pre- flection, the true nature of their active sent themselves : In the first place, principles, and can only reason conwhat is a phrenological faculty ? and, cerning them from an imperfect anasecondly, what is the real nature of its logy. Gall and Spurzheim, however, supposed instrument, an organ of the avowedly choose to reject all the knowbrain?

ledge which has been accumulated conMr Combe's definition of a faculty cerning the human mind by others, is, " That it is a specific power of and to recur to a total ignorance upon feeling in a certain way, or of forming the subject, in order that they may ideas of a certain kind; and that each have the sole merit of removing it. is distinct from the feelings which it But surely it is reasonable to conclude, produces, or the ideas which it forms.” that they have not removed it, since The whole amount of the information the terms which they employ are such which these words convey to us, is, as can only be taken to signify ignothat there is something called a facul. rance, and since even instinct itself is ty, which gives us particular kinds of favourite word with them. feelings or ideas. Now, although upon With respect to those distinct organs the peculiar signification attached by which the phrenologists pretend to the phrenologists to this one term, the have discovered in the brain, it is onchief peculiarity of their system de- ly necessary at present to remark, that pends, yet we may safely defy any their true nature cannot be made

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