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If the professed boxer must necessarily us certain precious gifts; and, as if have a specific faculty of combative she had begun to repent of her favour, ness, which is not possessed by the has also implanted in us what they peaceable citizen, why must not the acknowledge to have no other end than professed angler not be endowed with to render these gifts unavailing. They a specific faculty of piscativeness, which suppose that God Almighty has done is not possessed by the mere hunts, by us, what is exactly the same as beman? Those who fight on a public stowing upon us organs of vision of a stage, whether for the mere pleasure given perfection, and then, in order to of bruising and being bruised, (if the attain the end which he had originally phrenologists will so have it,) or for in view, framing for us other organs, the sake of revenge, or emolument, or for no other purpose than to defeat, fame, do not surely manifest feelings more or less, the object for which he more peculiarly their own, than are had given us the first. Without enthe predilections of the genuine discia croaching upon controverted subjects, ples of old Isaac Walton, for pleasant is this supposition, we would ask, constreams, stored with fishes. Accord- sonant to the simplicity and unity of ingly we find that Mr Combe's very purpose, which we every where observe words may be used, mutatis mutandis, throughout the works of nature? Or, in reference to the love of angling, as does any object in the whole creation distinct from the love of hunting and furnish us with one single instance in shooting. “ Allow me,” it may be which she has accomplished her ends said, “ to request every keen angler, by similar means? But let us leave, for who is not a keen huntsman, to exa- a little, the consideration of particular mine his own feelings, and say if any faculties, and return to our general prospect of amusement would induce argument. him to follow the hounds or the point- Our present question, with the phreer dog for a season, and forego the joys nologists, simply is, whether a mur. of angling.' Let me ask him whether derer, or a combatant, or a builder of his own feelings do not restrain him houses, manifests a propensity to perfrom suchsports' as effectually as if form certain actions which are agree
the game laws put them out of his able in themselves, or only a predilection reach. If, on the other hand, there for the consequences to which actions, are men who enter into such 'amuse which are indifferent in themselves, ments, not only without reluctance, may happen to lead. For, if it is the but with avidity and delight, is it not desire of honour, for example, and not clear that there is some modification the wish to obtain any direct and peof feeling in their mind, which is not culiar sensation of pleasure, which, in in his?"
certain circumstances, prompts a man We may add, that the phrenologists to fight, it is evident that the same are quite mistaken in supposing that desire will, in different circumstances, the feelings and actions of a true sports- prompt him equally to refrain from man are at all such as can be ascribed fighting. Now, there is undoubtedly to their faculty of Destructiveness. For no direct
and peculiar sensation of pleait is well known, that whenever his sure in the mere act of striking a man attachment to his favourite amusement with a stick or a sword, any more than ceases, for a moment, to prevent him in the act of striking a tree, or a block from reflecting upon the suffering of wood, with the same weapons, or in which he inflicts, his pleasure is, for any other ordinary exertion of the that moment, converted into pain. muscles. To talk of fighting and killIndeed it may be easily proved that ing, for the mere pleasure of giving there is no such faculty as that of and receiving blows, as if these actions destructiveness, in more ways than one. gratified distinct propensities of the Thus, according to Gall and Spurz- human mind, and not the desire of heim, there is one organ of the brain life, pleasure, fame, &c. is, therefore, appropriated to a faculty which ren- in reality, to talk of actions performed ders us benevolent, and inclines us to without any motives at all. acts of mercy and compassion, and an- Surely, no one ever stated, as his other to a faculty which renders us reason for pulling down his house, that eruel and malicious. Nature, then, although it might be useful to him, according to them, has bestowed upon yet he felt a natural tendency to deVOL. XIII.
stroy it, and anticipated a natural plea-' he has the means of gratifying'it, insure in contemplating its ruin. On the duces him to rear a handsome countrycontrary, it is quite certain that there seat, or a splendid palace. is no person who would not rather re- We conclude, then, that Gall and main altogether inactive, than be at Spurzheim have been in use to state as the pains of either building up or pull- faculties of having particular desires, ing down a structure, which he sees to merely certain qualities of mind, or be neither useful nor hurtful to him. whatever else they may be called, It would, in fine, be no less absurd to which are not manifested by any parmaintain that the African manifests a ticular desires at all.—This practice of distinct faculty of shell-gathering be- theirs we shall next proceed to illuscause he delights to pick up couries on trate, by some remarks on what may the sand, aware that in them he will be called the chef-d'ouvre of Drs Gall possess the means of indulging in his and Spurzheim,—the faculty of Acnatural love of ease, eating and sleep- quisitiveness, or Covetiveness. These ing, than it is to hold that the Euro- remarks, together with some considerpean manifests a distinct faculty of ations relative to the faculties included Constructiveness, because the love of under the denomination of Intellect, pleasure, in general, and the desire of we shall insert in our next Number. gaining distinction, by shewing that
[We have, we believe, given a few light, open-hearted slaps to that Paltry Periodical of Pisa---and no more. We hear people about us saying that it is quite beneath our notice; but we do not know that. It seems to be making mouths at us, and we shall probably chastise it. If it were merely that grinning idiot, which it appears to be, we should let it alone, --but it is also knavish, and may therefore legitimately be kicked. It is not the first time (before gout and rheumatism) that we have turned to, and served out chaps who were insolent-a-la-Belcher. Many men would not have taken the trouble ; but to us the trouble was a pleasure; and we enjoyed the sound of our maulys on the frontispiece of the blackguards. Just so with such writers as these Liberals. Should we chance to be in the humour, we will knock them down, right and left, like so many Cockney nine-pins. There is one Cur among the set in particular, whom we must put down. A cankered turnspit must not be suffered to snarl at the heels of a good-humoured mastiff. When we turn round upon him, he will wish his long wiry back, and turned-out toes, and hidden tail, out of the growl that will sound as if we were devouring him alive. But we will only cuff his ears or perhaps hang him up by the tail for a while-or tie a kettle to him-or drop him into a horse-pond ; for he is not worth killing, his skin being mangy.
The following paper about these gentry was left at No. 17, a few evenings ago, with a written request either to print it as a pamphlet, or to throw it into the fire. Pamphlets don't circulate and the stove in the Sanctum is not well adapted for incremation. Therefore we publish the paper in Maga, which we trust our unknown contributor will think the best way of disposing of his lucubrations; and we shall be happy to hear from him when he is at leisure, either on this or any other subject, but have at present no means of a private communication. We have left out one long passage of his paper, for reasons which he will understand, and we hope approve.-C. N.]
It is a frequent and proper custom as they find it necessary to use in a with men who write on scientific sub- peculiar or technical sense, in order to jects, or discuss controverted questions prevent their meaning from being misin philosophy, to commence with de- conceived; and when the writer and finitions and explanations of technical reader perfectly understand each other, terms, and also of such common words it matters little what words are used.
Yet, AN AUTHOR, that is to say, one When one meets with the word rewho publishes what he writes to be FORM, in a religious or moral disread by he knows not who, should course, or in any work unconnected not, when it can be avoided, use com- with party politics, he knows that it mon words in any other than their means a change for the better, a corcommon meaning ; and should be par- rection of something that was amiss, ticularly careful not to use the same an improvement of something that was word in different senses.
defective. Every body knows this, yet - Were it not less the purpose of nobody scruples to allow the name of party, or as they choose to call them- a Plan of Reform to be applied to any selves, political writers, to be under projected change in the laws, or the stood than to be admired by their constitution of the government of his readers, and to convince than to per- country, whether he considers such plex an adversary, they would perceive projected change to be an improvement it to be more necessary to them than or not; and the reformer and his opto any other class of writers to settle ponent can converse or dispute on the the precise sense in which their words subject without being at cross purare to be received, not so much be- poses with each other. Were the word cause party words are constantly chan- restricted to its proper meaning, it ging their meanings, as because a could not be said that a man opposed common word, when applied to party reform because he disapproved of all purposes, or adopted by a party as a the changes that have been projected name or watch-word, at once acquires in the government of England, but a new signification ; and although it that he denies them to be reforms. does not lose the old one, the party and The differences among our state rethe ordinary significations are some- FORMERS do not prevent the name times the very reverse of each other. from suiting them all. He who would
But this would not answer the pur- tear up our constitution by the roots, poses of the bulk of those whose occu- and level our liberties with the ground, pation it is to keep up the cry of a calls himself a radical reformer: whilst party by word or writing. Words that he who would be content to leave it are capable of various interpretations, standing, provided he might lop off its and may be used in a double or doubt. boughs, strip it of its bark, and change ful sense, are amongst the tools of the form of its trunk from round to their trade. Could every word be re- square, in order to promote its growth, stricted to one sense, their occupation and make it bear a rich harvest of is gone. The adoption of a new term poniards, daggers, and tri-coloured has the effect of a new argument, Hags, instead of its wonted crop of which continues to be unanswerable leaves and fruit, is a moderate reformtill the quibble is detected. A sentence There are reformers more modethat can be interpreted in more ways rate than these, who would be satisfied than one, possesses for a time, and to with lopping off a doomed branch; but a certain extent, an advantage that as they are not agreed among themhas been supposed peculiar to one that selves, and there is no branch against cannot be interpreted at all, or what is which some one has not a grudge, the usually called nonsense. This proper- tree would fare no better in their ty of their productions, (being unan- hands than in the hands of the radi. swerable,) the most approved party- cals; for if one were indulged, no reawriters often boast with more reason son could be given why another should and truth than their readers or rivals be denied. Others more moderate still, are willing to give them credit for, or, would reform our sacred tree of liperhaps, than themselves are aware of. berty by rule and compass, and clip
To give an instance or two of this its majestic boughs into regular fidiversity of meanings in the same gures, some preferring the cone, some words, according to the circumstances the pyramid, some the cube, and others of the party who uses them.
the sphere. In the mouth of a party zealot, AN
Let it not be deemed impertinent, INDEPENDENT MAN signifies the slave kind reader, if I, for a moment, inof a party, and AN ENLIGHTENED terrupt the feast of reason you are enman the slave of a prejudice. It is joying, to take off my glass, and name needless to state the ordinary meaning a toast : of words in such general use.
“ May the British tree of liberty
never be hewn down by the ruffian axe' the name of Liberals, no one would of radicalism, or undermined by the have at once pitched upon illiberality dirty shovel of reform."
as their distinguishing characteristic; In the foregoing instance, though the but since they became The Liberals, word Reform loses an important part of hardly an act has been performed or its signification when applied to party attempted, a sentiment uttered, or an schemes, its meaning is not totally re- opinion published by them, that does versed ; nor are the meanings of words not outrage common candour. The necessarily reversed by party use, in a French have their ultra-liberals and majority of cases. A party calling it their ultra-royalists. We have not yet self moderate does not necessarily run adopted the terms that is to say, we into extremes, although its pretensions use them only when speaking of French to superior moderation may beunfound parties. Ultra-liberal ! Ultra-royalist! ed and ridiculous. Should, for exam- A man in France, it seems, may be ple, a set of gallants choose to be known too candid in heart, and generous in by the name of the Elegants, it does not conduct, and too loyal to his King and follow, nor is it likely, that they would country. An old-fashioned man, who be remarkable for their awkwardness had never before heard of Liberalism,
A society who should might suppose the ultra-liberal and the style themselves the Gentle, would be ultra-royalist to be two names for the very unlikely to distinguish them
same party. But that would be a deselves by their rudeness ; but there is vil of a mistake. Nothing, according something so palpably illiberal in a to the liberal creed, being more antiperson's appropriating the name of liberal than loyalty, or more anti-loyal The Liberal, exclusively, or even by than liberalism. way of eminence, to himself or his Were I to define Liberalism to a own party, that one would expect, man versed in our ordinary language, without previous information, to find but a stranger to the jargon of parties, the grossest illiberality, and a defi- I would say that liberalism is exactly ciency of common candour in the sen- the reverse of liberality, and I think, timents, and of common good breeding with little risk, that my definition in the behaviour, of him who had as- could mislead him. Formerly, a man sumed it.
who made pretensions to common canThe Liberals, or Liberales, as they dour, which is but the lowest degree were called when the name was first of liberality, thought it incumbent imported, were a party in France. I upon him to do justice to the merits of mean not to quarrel about words, all men, especially a rival or an admuch less shall I enter on a discussion versary; and where the conduct was about the spelling and pronunciation proper, to suppose the motives and inof a word ; yet I wish, for the credit tentions were good; to applaud sinof my countrymen, the French spell- cerely and heartily where applause was ing and pronunciation had been re- due; to put a favourable construction tained, to shew from whom it was de- on doubtful actions; to overlook small rived. Any thing so excessively illibe- faults where there were great merit ral could not have had its first concep- and apparent good intention; to make tion in an English brain, although, like due allowances for great difficulties; all foreign follies, it was eagerly adopted and where it was proper or necessary when imported. A party in this coun- to blame, carefully to abstain from extry, acting and thinking in unison with aggeration and misrepresentation. Nothe Liberales of France, as far as French thing was considered more low and iland English heads or hearts can be in liberal than reflections on communiunison, at once complacently applied ties, professions, and bodies of menit to themselves, and the deriding the clergy, for instance and the abworld confirmed it in scorn. When a sent and the dead, the helpless and word, by becoming the name of a the diffident, had rights which a libeparty, acquires a meaning opposite to ral man held sacred. Are these the its usual and natural acceptation, there sentiments that acquire for a man the is irony in uttering it, and I trow it title of A Liberal Ask the Liberals has adhered to them. This party as- themselves. The conduct and lansuredly was at no time characterized guage which naturally flow from such by any thing that could be called li- sentiments, form what the author of beral; yet before they gave themselves a new work, entitled “The LIBERAL,"
calls “ a kind of cant, confounding li- it without the aid of a preceptor, an berality with illiberality, narrow views office for which I recommend mywith large, the instincts of a selfish self as eminently qualified. It is solechoice with those of a generous one, ly on this account that it is worth nothe mere amenities and ordinary vir ticing at all, and this gives it a value. tues of private life,” &c.
I had it in my thoughts, before the LiPledge me, gentle friends, to a beral appeared, to draw up a compenditoast :
um of the mysteries of Liberalism—but “A spark of candour to the liberal, dropped the intention, because I could and a glimpse of good sense to the en- not fix on any arrangement of the sublightened.
ject that I was pleased with. I had for“ The Liberal” was announced in gotten it, when the Liberal coming in advertisements, placards, and puffs in my way, brought it to my recollection. various forms, as the work of Lord By walking over the preface with my Byron and others residing in Italy, readers, and picking up the flowers some weeks before it was published. of Liberalism in the order in which John Wilkes called his satireon Scotch- they lie in our path, I am spared men “The North Briton.” Had “The the pains of a systematic arrangement Liberal” been announced without a -of which, indeed, the subject is not name, it would have been supposed to capable. The pieces which this prebe a hit at the Liberals. Indeed it is a face ushers in are poor indeed,” hard hit, though it proves not to be an and this is all that can be said of intended one. It was right, therefore, most of them. The less that is said to name as the author a sturdy Libe- about some of them the better. I do ral, of whom it was before known that not think the publication wholly harm“ he went the full length in matters less; but so poor a work can do but of opinion," to use his own words, little harm, except to the reputation of (vide preface), “ with large bodies of its authors and the best answer would men who are called Liberals." All not make that little less. I therefore mistakes as to the nature of the work shall say but little of the work, except were thus prevented by these heraldic as it may be illustrative of the prinpuffs. The Liberal appeared at length ciples and opinions expressed or insiwithout name or date, and it may not nuated in the preface, and of the chabe Lord Byron's.* I have no doubt of racter and opinions of the party whose its being his; but it is right to make name it bears. it known that I have no authority for The preface opens with some tolerably thinking it so, except the common be- ingenious, but trite and common-place, lief, and the placards of interested remarks, on the uselessness of prebooksellers. It continues to be puffed faces—the idle vanity of ushering in in liberal papers, and to be sold at the publications with a parade of pomlibraries, as“ The Liberal, by Lord pous professions. This is a favourite Byron.” I have seen, in different parts theme with preface-writers; the preof the town, three or four copies set up face to many a book could not be side by side, open at different pages written without it. Our prefacer tells Exposed in windows to promote the sale, us, “ The greater the flourish of trumAs tapsters hang out signs to sell their ale; pets now-a-days, the more suspicious
what follows” “ We wave our priand a staring placard at the door
vilege of having the way prepared for THE LIBERAL,
us by our own mouth-pieces.”—Not
withstanding this, he goes on to flouLORD BYRON.
rish his trumpet, and to EXERCISE his From the preface to the Liberal may unquestionable privilege of preparing be picked out, by one versed in the the way for his work by his own quaint and involved style affected for mouth-piece, through a preface that wise purposes, all the leading prin- fills eight pages. is Common scribciples of Liberalism; and on this ac- blers," says Lestrange, “ have the pricount it is worth analyzing for the vileges of common prostitutes; the benefit of the uninitiated, who would most forward strumpet I ever knew learn but little were they to peruse had these words constantly in her