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With her--'T'is hard-but yes, I am resolved on't.
(He meets Mrs M. returning.)
(The Conspirators scour off, making an uproar, many voices
hooting and jeering.) 1st Voice. Bad luck to Punch and Judy. 2d Voice.
Nippy Judy 3d Voice. She'll skin a flint as soon as any body. 4th Voice. And swear the inside makes good wholesome soup. 5th Voice. The old ewe is disguised in a lamb's fleece. , 6th Voice. But her husband has not got his wise teeth yet.
7th Voice. Don't leave the marrow-bones-she'll pocket 'em,
My boys, pack off;
Stand ; I arrest you,
Peter. O, this hath marr'd our grand solemnity
It doesn't signify
Think not of them.
All stuff and nonsense.
Peter. Children, draw off now to the manufactory,
shall have the dinner that I promised.
Mrs M. Peter, you seem a greater goose than ever:
Peter. Nay, I'm a goosy-gander—you're the goose,
As the meeting of Parliament ap- obediently heard by the most inactive, proaches, politics take a more definite secure, and contented of all monarshape. Party is already examining its chies. In all the defeats of France, the strength, and the Session will probably weight of the blow fell upon Spain exhibit more equality of force-more “ Delirant reges," and the glory, as activity of discussion, than any period well as the madness, rested with the since the peace. The decisions of the leading and restless disturbers. Spain, Congress, the affairs of Spain, of the land of clowns and confessors, haGreece, and of Turkey, will form mat- ting war, suffered its penalty; and ter of deep debate; and the closest and gained nothing in compensation but most menacing of all, the state of Ire- snuff-boxes, and the honour of being land, will deserve to occupy a most so- governed by a branch of the Bourbons. leinn and anxious consideration. T'he Alliance haunted the dreams of
The decision of the Congress rela- Europe a century ago ; and the War of tive to Spain was merely an attempt to the Succession was made in the terror make an honourable, retreat from an of universal conquest. This war was embarrassment too strong for diplo- one of the thousand evidences how gidmacy. It is presumed that France so- dily blood is shed when human paslicited the war—Russia urged it, sions thirst for it, and how essential it Austria and Prussia permitted it, is for governments to know the characEngland forbade it. The direct will ters of nations. of England, directly announced, must In the alarm of the time, it was foralways be listened to with respect or gotten that the new allies of France fear;-and Englishmen may congra- were the most inactive and self-indultulate themselves on seeing that the gent of mankind that they had neiname of their country is no longer hu- ther the spirit of freedom nor the miliated by a feeble subserviency to strength of slavery—that without comforeign chicane. But for this will, so merce, literature, manufactures, and pronounced, Europe would be at this' mutual intercourse, Spain was without hour covered with armies, and perhaps all the great movers of a national mind; with slaughter. Every wound of all -A noble country, a generous and galits empires would be re-opened, and lant people; but the one given up to every virulent passion, buried malig- bare sterility, and the other sinewless nity, and extravagant rage of conquest, and languid from cureless inaction ;that had been trampled down by the an oriental kingdom in the midst of final triumphs of England, might have Europe--a region of exorbitant luxury been raised again, for a desolation be- beside primitive ignorance--the most yond all the power of arms or wisdom determined waste of power, in full conto repress or cure.
trast with the most hopeless and irreIt was the desire of France that Spain solute simplicity. should be invaded. For this the pre- The philosopher might find in this text was, the fear of Republicanism, singular anomaly some salutary proofs established so near her borders. The of the essential necessity of freedom in fear justified caution, but not vio- politics and religion, to the growth of lence-vigilant restrictions, not inva- national strength. But the direct insion. The more secret motive is the ference is, that the ministers who comancient possessory right which for more menced the War of the Succession, calthan a hundred years France had ex- culated upon false principles ; overercised over Spain. The Peninsula, looking moral feebleness in physical nominally free, was actually depend- capability, and conceiving that a land ent. The family alliance made it an of priests and peasants could be turned appanage of France—the King was a into a great vigorous empire, fertile French viceroy, and the people were of warriors and statesmen-while the French slaves. If Louis made war, his causes that had enfeebled the national humble relative, Philip or Charles, mind were suffered to prey upon it as followed as soon as he could shake off widely and deeply as ever. It is rehis lethargy. In all the aggressions markable, that since the expulsion of of the most active and ambitious mo- the Moors, but one man of decided narchy of Europe, its trumpet was manliness has sat upon the Spanish VOL. XIII.
throne, and that man was more a Ger- The assistance which a Bourbon in man than a Spaniard. The whole line Madrid might give to a Bourbon in since Charles the Fifth, have been Paris, can never be worth the expense either gloomy bigots, feeble voluptu- and the bloodshed of an English war. aries, or honest fools. The whole as- The closeness of the family consistance of Spain to France since 1701, nexion is striking; it is the only inwas not worth a tenth part of the blood stance among thrones of a feeling of reor money lavished in the war that la- lationship, kept up across the fluctuaboured to break the fimily compact. tions and distance of that gulph of so If that compact were to be renewed to- many things and memories—a century. morrow, with Spain returned to her On the 3d of February, 1701, the old habits, destitute of a constitution, letters patent were signed, by which a free press, and a tolerant religion, it Louis XIV. confirmed to Philip V. all would not be worth a drop of British his rights to the succession of the blood. Spain, without liberty, must French throne. The possible union be unimportant as an ally; and with a of the two crowns was the bugbear of constitution, she will not bow down the time. But the clause of succession her forehead to French dependence. was as rigidly retained by France, unNapoleon felt this, and therefore made, der all the misfortunes that preceded a desperate grasp at the full dominion the peace of Utrecht, as it was anxiousof the country. He felt, as much as ly insisted on by her victors. At “Macedonia's madman, or the Swede," length, however, the English ministry, the passion to be called master. Yet compelled by the clamour of the peoSpain might have remained under her ple, forced this clause out of the treaty, Bourbon dynasty, but for his convic- and it was decided that the double tion, that without a total change of go: crown should never sit upon one head. vernment and institutions, she must But the faith of governinents is probe useless as an auxiliary. If he had verbially precarious; and Philip was succeeded in his project, nefarious as it so little scrupulous, that, on a report was, he would have cast away all the of the death of Louis XV., then a old incumbrances of the national vi- minor, the Spanish King was actually gour. With a French viceroy and a on the point of setting out for France French ministry at Madrid, he would to lay claim to the throne. have stricken off, before ten years had Louis the XIV. might be called the passed, the whole weight of those father of sovereignties. The table of clinging and hereditary disabilities, that his descendants is a curious monument under the name of monkery, local pri- of the power that may be vested in a vileges, and patrician exemptions, had single family. He was the head of turned a gallant people into a race of four branches, all of which have confriars, mendicants, and idlers. While tinued and flourished to the present with one hand he was rending away time, among all the shocks of revothis lazy covering, which at once ob- lution. scured the form and relaxed the strength of the nation ; with the other,
The Spanish Branch. he would have been putting the lance
Louis XIV. and musket into her grasp, and ex
The Dauphin. hibited Spain to the world, a fierce,
Philip v. and dextrous belligerent, in the strug
Don Philip. gle which he had sworn to maintain
Charles III. against the liberties of mankind. War
Charles IV. ike Spain, in the hands of imperial
Ferdinand VII. France, would have been the most terrible phenomenon of a time pregnant The Neapolitan Branch. with terrors. The question of Eu
Louis XIV. ropean freedom hung in the balance ;
The Dauphin. and but for the vigour and valour of
Philip V. England, Europe was undone.
Charles III. But against a war for the
Ferdinand I. either of repelling or introducing the present power of France, publicopinion The Branch of Parma. seems decided. While Spain continues
Louis XIV. unregenerate, she must continue weak.
tribution of French gold, and the Ferdinand
whole irritation of the monkery and Louis I. of Etruria. privileged orders, have not been able to Louis II.
continue the struggle against the con
stitutionalists, relying only on their Don Philip, the Infant of Spain, native popularity. If success should. was the first Bourbon who was in- inflame the popular leaders into jacovested with the Duchies of Parma, binism, their country must be ravaged Placentia, and Guastalla, by the peace by dissidents, and be invaded by a of 1748. He was the son-in-law of French army. This terror may be Louis XIV. His grandson, Louis I., wholesome, and be the parent of an was declared King of Etruria in 1801. English constitution. But the violence This branch of the Bourbons has re- which was congenial to French hisceived, as a provisional indemnity, the tory, has found no example in Spain. principality of Lucca; and has, be- The public mind has been distinguishsides, been acknowledged as the im- ed for its tardiness and tranquillity, mediate heir of the Duchess of Parma, since Spain became a monarchy. It Maria Louisa, to the exclusion of young has had no “ wars of the League,” no Napoleon
Cevennes,” no “ Frondes," no “ St
Bartholomew's,” no “ Revolution.” It The French Branch.
has been as barren as a rock, but it has Louis XIV.
been as fixed as a rock. While the richer The Dauphin.
cultivation of other countries has been Louis XV.
torn and scattered away by the moral Louis XVI.
storm, her desolate surface has been Louis XVIII.
undisturbed. Her constitution, as it
was promulgated in 1820, is undoubtWe may observe en passant, that cdly jacobinical. But we must look the chance of the Orleans succession to the practice of this formidable code, to the throne of France, is too remote and we shall find it tempered by a to countenance either the alarms of lenity and forbearance that disarm the reigning family or the hopes of the principle of half its terrors. We partizanship. The descent of the Or- give a sketch of this baffled constituleads line is collateral.
The sovereignty resides essentially Monsieur, brother of Louis XIV. in the nation. The Duke of Orleans. (Regent.)
The Cortes consists of only one Duke Louis.
Chamber, which is formed of the deDuke Louis Philip.
puties of the people. The deputies Duke Philip Louis. (Egalité.) are elected by all the citizens; one The present Duke.
deputy for every 70,000 souls in the Thus, between the Orleans family Peninsula, islands and colonies. and the throne, stand the three genea- The elections are made in the Eleclogies of Spain, Naples, and Parma. toral Juntas of parishes, districts, and
provinces. The citizens of all the The great question of peace or war parishes choose electors, who nominate has been set at rest by a power beyond the electors for the district, and these the reach of diplomacy--winter. Till again name the electors who are to the passes of the Pyrenees are cleared meet in the capital of the province to of their snow, the French army must elect the deputies to the Cortes. lie in their garrisons. This delay of The Cortes to meet every year on war is productive of negociation, which the 1st of March, without awaiting will probably issue in peace, and Spain any instrument from the King for their will he left to tear her own vitals, if convocation. her government be frantic enough to The Session to continue at least force the constitution of Madrid upon three months every year. the provinces, or to take her way to The Session may be prolonged by her natural eminence unobstructed by their own vote of two-thirds of their the hostility of strangers.
members for another month. It is palpable that the constitution- The deputies to be renewed entirealists make the majority of the Spa- ly every second year. nish people. The presence of a French Deputies cannot be elected to sit in army on the Pyrences, the lavish dis- two consecutive Cortes.
The deputies swear to protect the All deputies are paid a certain sala Constitution, and to be faithful to the ry by the provinces they represent. nation ; but no reference is made to Before the close of a Session, the the King in this oath.
Cortes nominate a permanent deputaNo foreigner can be a deputy, not tion of their body, to watch over the even after having received letters of strict observance of the Constitution, naturalization.
with instructions to report any infracThe King to open the Cortes with tions to the next Cortes. a speech, and to come without guards. No actual deputy can be a member The Cortés cannot deliberate in his of the Council of State. The King's presence. Debates public; members ministers have no seats in the House. inviolable for their opinions ; members When any vacancy arises in the cannot ask or accept rewards, honours, Council of State, the Cortes present to or pensions from the King.
the King three names, of which he The approbation of the Cortes neces- must take one to fill the vacant place. sary before any offensive alliance can The King must hear the decision of be formed, or commercial treaty made. the Council on all important affairs of They determine on the proposal of the Government. the King, the strength of the army The King cannot give or refuse his and naval force.
assent to bills, nor declare war, nor They regulate the system of gene- make peace, nor negociate treaties, ral education, and approve that form- without the consent of the Council of ed for the Prince of Asturias. They State. enforce the responsibility of the Sea It belongs to the Council to propose cretaries of State, and of all the public to the King three persons for presenfunctionaries. They give instructions, tation to all ecclesiastical benefices, and form regulations to the army, and to all situations in the judicature, navy, and militia, in all their branches. and the nomination must be one of
Half the number, plus one, a quo- the three persons thus recommended. rum.
The Council proposes, thus in triple Bills to be read three times; the lists, names for succession to all situKing cannot refuse his assent by a ations in civil and criminal tribunals. simple negative; he must state his Presentations are made in this way reasons for withholding it. If he fail also, to all bishoprics, and other eccleto do so within thirty days, his silence siastical dignities. is construed into assent. A bill thus The distribution of honours and thrown out may be brought in again distinctions is made according to fixduring the next Session, and if then ed laws. lost, it may be brought forward a third The King cannot make any offentime in the next succeeding Session, sive alliance or commercial treaty withand if it then pass, it becomes law out the consent of the Cortes, as well without the King's assent, and with- as the approbation of the Council. out being referred to him at all.
The state of the press in England extraordinary and munificent distriis a matter which deserves the weighti- bution of the Bible, more solidly fixed est consideration in the approaching among the first movers of the national Session.
mind, than in all the periods of reviWe are by no means desirous of ved religion, since the day of Martyrranking among the declaimers against dom and Miracle. the present age. We are satisfied that But we not less feel that there exists
seven thousand,” and many a perilous and appalling contrast to times seven thousand, who “have not this view of British morals. Crimes bowed the knee to Baal ;" that there is have multiplied to an extent which within the realm at this hour a mass fatigues the tribunals. Desperate men of holiness and wisdom, and loyalty make an open livelihood of inflaming and knowledge, unequalled in any pre- the popular mind to acts of violence. vious age, and altogether unrivalled Regular missionaries of insurrection in the world; we will go farther, and parade through the country, with an say, that the spirit of the great guar- ostentatious defiance of the legal audian of public and private virtue, thorities. Wherever there is a local Christianity, is more widely diffused, pressure, which may be aggravated more deeply understood, and, by the into a popular tumult, there speeds