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"Of such sort, then, are the prizes and the wages and the gifts which the just man receiveth, while he is yet alive, from Gods and Men, over and above those good things whereof I spake which Justice herself provideth.”

“ Yea, in truth goodly gifts,” quoth he, “and exceeding sure.”

“ Well," I said, “they are even as nothing, for number and greatness, in comparison with those things which await each of the two, to wit, the just man and the unjust man, when he is dead. Of these thou must hear, that each of them may have full payment of that which this Discourse oweth him to be said concerning him.”

"Say on," quoth he, “there is little else I would hear more gladly."

“Nay," said I, “but it is not a Tale of Alcinous I will tell thee, but the story of a mighty man, Er, the son of Armenius, of the nation of the Pamphylians.

“It came to pass that he fell in battle ; and when the corpses were taken up on the tenth day already stinking, he was taken up sound; and when they had carried him home and were about to bury him, on the twelfth day, being laid on the pyre, he came to life again ; and began to tell of the things which he saw there.

“ He said that when his Soul went out, it journeyed together with a great company, and they came unto a certain ghostly place wherein were two open Mouths of the Earth hard by each other, and also above, two Mouths of the Heaven, over against them: and Judges were seated between these, who, when they had given their judgments, bade the righteous take the road which leadeth to the right hand and up through Heaven; and they fastened tablets on them in front, signifying the judgments; but the unjust they sent by the road which leadeth to the left hand and down, and they also had tablets fastened on them behind, signifying all that they had done. But when he himself came before the Judges they said unto him that he must be for a messenger unto men concerning the things there, and they charged him straitly that των εκεί και διακελεύοιντό οι ακούειν τε και θεασθαι πάντα τα εν τω τόπω. οράν δή ταύτη μεν καθ' εκάτερον το χάσμα του ουρανού τε και της γης απιούσας τας ψυχάς, επειδή αυταίς δικασθείη, κατά δε τώ ετέρω εκ μεν του ανιέναι εκ της γης μεστάς αυχμού τε και κόνεως, εκ

δε του ετέρου καταβαίνειν ετέρας εκ του ουρανού καθαράς. Ε και τας αει αφικνουμένας ώσπερ εκ πολλής πορείας

φαίνεσθαι ήκειν, και άσμένας εις τον λειμώνα απιούσας οίον εν πανηγύρει κατασκηνώσθαι, και ασπάζεσθαί τε αλλήλας όσαι γνώριμαι, και πυνθάνεσθαι τάς τε εκ της γης ηκούσας παρά των ετέρων τα εκεί και τας εκ του ουρανού

τα παρ' εκείναις. διηγείσθαι δε άλλήλαις τας μεν 615 οδυρομένας τε και κλαούσας, αναμιμνησκομένας, όσα τε και

οία πάθοιεν και ίδoιεν εν τη υπό γης πορεία-είναι δε την πορείαν χιλιετή-τας δ' αυ εκ του ουρανού ευπαθείας διηγείσθαι και θέας αμηχάνους το κάλλος. τα μεν ούν πολλά, ώ Γλαύκων, πολλου χρόνου διηγήσασθαι· το δ' ούν κεφάλαιον έφη τόδε είναι, όσα πώποτέ τινα ήδίκησαν και όσους έκαστοι, υπέρ απάντων δίκην δεδωκέναι εν μέρει,

υπέρ εκάστου δεκάκις-τούτο δ' είναι κατά εκατονταετηΒρίδα εκάστην, ως βίου όντος τοσούτου του ανθρωπίνου-,

ίνα δεκαπλάσιον το έκτισμα του αδικήματος εκτίνoιεν· και οίτινες πολλών θανάτων ήσαν αίτιοι, ή πόλεις προδόντες ή στρατόπεδα και εις δουλείας εμβεβληκότες, ή τινος άλλης κακουχίας μεταίτιοι, πάντων τούτων δεκαπλασίας άλγηδόνας υπέρ εκάστου κομίσαιντο, και αν εί τινας ευεργεσίας

ευεργετηκότες και δίκαιοι και όσιοι γεγονότες ειεν, κατά C ταυτά τήν άξίαν κομίζοιντο. των δε ευθύς γενομένων και

ολίγον χρόνον βιούντων πέρι άλλα έλεγεν ουκ άξια μνήμης. είς δε θεούς ασεβείας τε και ευσεβείας και γονέας και αυτόχειρας φόνου μείζoυς έτι τους μισθούς διηγείτο. έφη he should give diligence to hear and see all the things in the place.

“Now, he told how that he beheld the Souls departing, some by one of the Mouths of Heaven, and some by one of the Mouths of Earth, when judgment had been given unto them; also how that he beheld Souls returning by the other two Mouths, some coming up from the Earth travel-stained, covered with dust, and some coming down from Heaven, pure. And he said that all, as they came, being come belike from a long journey, turned aside with joy into the Meadow and encamped there as in a Congregation; and they that were acquaintances greeted one another, and they questioned one another—they that were come from the Earth questioned them that were come from Heaven concerning the things there, and in like manner they that were come from Heaven questioned the others concerning the things that had happened unto them. So they discoursed with one another-some of them groaning and weeping when they called to mind all the terrible things they had suffered and seen in their journey under the Earth

- he said that their journey was for a thousand years; and others of them, to wit, those which were come from Heaven, telling of blessings and marvellous fair sights.

“ Time would fail me, O Glaucon, to relate all that he said, but the sum thereof was this That according to the number of the wrongs which each man hath ever done, and the number of them whom he hath wronged, he payeth penalty for all in their course, ten times for each now, it is every hundred years that he payeth, for a hundred years are counted for the lifetime of a man: so is it brought to pass that the price of evil-doing is paid tenfold: thus if certain caused the death of many by betraying cities or armies, and casting men into bondage, or taking part of other iniquity, they are recompensed tenfold with torments for each one of these things; but if any have done good unto other men, and have been just and religious, they in the same measure receive their rewards. Also concerning infants that died as soon as they were born, or lived but a short while, there were things he said that are not worth remembering. As for those who dishonoured Gods and Parents, and those who honoured them, and as for those that were murderers, he spake of their wages

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γαρ δή παραγενέσθαι ερωτωμένο έτέρω υπό ετέρου, όπου είη Αρδιαίος ο μέγας. ο δε Αρδιαίος ούτος της Παμφυλίας έν τινι πόλει τύραννος εγεγόνει, ήδη χιλιοστών έτος εις

εκείνον τον χρόνον, γέροντά τε πατέρα αποκτείνας και D πρεσβύτερον αδελφόν, και άλλα δή πολλά τε και ανόσια

ειργασμένος, ως ελέγετο. έφη ουν τον έρωτώμενον ειπείν, Ουχ ήκει, φάναι, ουδ' αν ήξει δεύρο.

εθεασάμεθα γαρ ούν δη και τούτο των δεινών θεαμάτων. επειδή εγγύς του στομίου ημεν μέλλοντες ανιέναι και ταλλα πάντα πεπονθότες, έκεϊνόν τε κατείδομεν εξαίφνης και άλλους σχεδόν τι αυτών τους πλείστους τυράννους: :

ήσαν δε και ιδιώται τινες των μεγάλα ημαρτηκότων· ους Ε οίομένους ήδη αναβήσεσθαι ουκ εδέχετο το στόμιον, αλλ'

έμυκάτο, οπότε τις των ούτως ανιάτως εχόντων εις πονηρίαν ή μη ικανώς δεδωκώς δίκην επιχειρού ανιέναι. ενταύθα δη άνδρες, έφη, άγριοι, διάπυροι ιδείν, παρεστώτες και καταμανθάνοντες το φθέγμα, τους μεν διαλαβόντες ήγον, τον δε

'Αρδιαίον και άλλους συμποδίσαντες χείράς τε και πόδας 616 και κεφαλήν, καταβαλόντες και εκδείραντες, είλκον παρά

την οδόν εκτός επ' ασπαλάθων κνάπτοντες, και τους αεί παριούσι σημαίνοντες, ών ένεκά τε ταύτα υπομένoιεν και ότι εις τον Τάρταρον έμπεσούμενοι άνοιντο.

ένθα δη φόβων, έφη, πολλών και παντοδαπών σφίσι γεγονότων τούτον υπερβάλλειν τον φόβον, μη γένοιτο εκάστω το φθέγμα, ότε αναβαίνοι, και άσμενέστατα έκαστον σιγήσαντος

αναβήναι. και τας μεν δή δίκας τε και τιμωρίας τοιαύτας Β τινάς είναι, και αυ τας ευεργεσίας ταύταις αντιστρόφους:

επειδή δε τοίς εν τω λειμώνι εκάστους επτά ημέραι γένοιντο, αναστάντας εντεύθεν δεϊν τη ογδόη πορεύεσθαι, και αφικνείσθαι τεταρταίους όθεν καθοράν άνωθεν

άνωθεν διά παντός του ουρανού και γης τεταμένον φώς ευθύ, οίον κίονα, μάλιστα τη ίριδι προσφερή, λαμπρότερον δε και

καθαρώτερον. εις ο αφικέσθαι προελθόντας ημερησίαν οδόν, C και ιδείν αυτόθι κατά μέσον το φως εκ του ουρανού τα

1 ταύτα υπομένoιεν οm.

as even greater; for he said that he stood beside one of whom another inquired, Where Ardiaeus the Great was. Now this Ardiaeus had made himself King in a city of Pamphylia just a thousand years before that time, having slain the old man his father, and his elder brother, and having wrought many other evil deeds, as men tell. He said, then, that the one of whom inquiry was made answered saying, He is not come ; nor will he ever come hither—for this, indeed, was one of the terrible things that we beheld when we were nigh unto the Mouth, and about to go up after all our sufferings; on the sudden we came in sight of him, and others, most of them kings, but there were also private men of those that had sinned greatly amongst them: these, thinking that they were already about to go up, the Mouth received not, but bellowed; for it belloweth as often as any one of those that are wicked beyond cure like unto these, or any one that hath not paid the full price of his sins, essayeth to go up. In that place he said men were standing by-savage men, as coals of fire to look upon—who, hearing and understanding the Voice of the Mouth, took hold of some in their arms and carried them away; but Ardiaeus and others they bound hand and foot and neck, and threw down, and flayed, and dragged to a place apart by the side of the way, and there carded them on thorns, signifying to all that passed by wherefore they were taken, and that they should be cast into Tartarus. Then, he said, there came upon him and his companions a fear greater than all the fears of every sort they had before ; for each one of them feared lest the Voice should be for himself when he went up: and with great joy did each one go up when the Voice kept silence.

“Of such kind, then, were the judgments and the punishments; and there were blessings that answered unto them.

Now, when both companies had been seven days in the Meadow, Er said that they were constrained, on the eighth day, to arise and journey thence, and came on the fourth day to a place whence they could behold a Straight Light extended from above through the whole Heaven and Earth, as it were a pillar, for colour most like unto the rainbow, but brighter and purer. Unto which they came when they had gone forward a day's journey, and there, at the middle part of the Light, beheld extended from the Heaven the ends of the

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