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TWO INTERESTS CLEARLY CANNOT BE RECONCILED, IT WILL BECOME EVEN A SLAVE TO CHOOSE HIGHLY. For the terms of freedom in a spiritual and temporal, or a moral and civil respect, are often reversed; so that the civil slave shall be Christ's freeman perchance; and the civil freeman, a slave to Satan; and little room will the former have in that case for dissatisfaction or the latter for exultation. St. Paul's advice on this head is excellent, “ Let every man abide in the same calling wherein he was called -For he that is called in the Lord being a servant, is the Lord's freeman : likewise also he that is called being free, is Christ's servant. Ye are bought with a price : be not ye the servants of men” (Cor. I. vii. 20, 22, 23): i. e. merely serving men, as men-pleasers, without any thought of pleasing God by an humble submission to his will, and a faithful discharge of your relative duties towards other men in every sphere, the only way in which you can actually serve Him. But such A FREEDOM AS THIS IS WORTH CONTENDING FOR.

The virtue of freedom, as now described, is nearly allied to truth, honour and sincerity ; and differs from candour only by the addition of energy: being, like candour, above dissimulation; and, going a step farther, apt also to blunt out what he thinks sometimes, regardless of consequences. In this case freedom will acquire the name of Frankness and Independence: which last has also properly two meanings or uses as well as Freedom, and may be referred either to internals or externals; to the will, meaning an independent spirit; or to the circumstances of the subject, meaning an independent fortune: or it may also apply to conduct, as at present, meaning an independent behaviour, a behaviour suiting an independent spirit, yet seen too often with its opposite, as in the case of some who are too proud to work, but not to be fed like cuckoos. Thus it appears, that while freedom and independence bave hardly a shade of difference between them, they also agree in the conformity of each to its antithesis by a certain qualification that has

just been mentioned ; true independence being a true dependence, in the same manner as true freedom is proved to be a true subjection. So.

2, Diligence is strength or ability, payable on demand, cotemporary with occasion, or with our perception of the same. It has just been observed, how one good characteristic proceeding from the spiritual motive department, v. g. freedom, is liable to be diffused over every department of the kingdom; over thinking as well as doing, and willing as well as thinking; we may now observe another in this with its fellows, industry and alacrity, forwardness, promptitude, activity, expedition, and others proceeding to the same extent and by the same means. For diligence is not a mere outward property confined to visible effects any more than is freedom; though, like freedom, it will issue or terminate in that point: but the will may be diligent, and the thought may be diligent, as well as the outward acting or process in the same manner that either may be free; so that diligence with its kind may apply or be applied generally to every department of the kingdom; while it properly stands forth as a good characteristic on the spiritual motive.

Few good properties are ever found alone in the kingdom, or ever suffered to be monopolized by one department: and this characteristic, diligence, is a decidedly good property for all the grades of intellectuals, for angels as well as men. Nay; it is, if one might be allowed to say it, an attribute of God himself; who with an eternal sabbath still worketh hitherto on sabbath-days as well as on others, and the Son likewise, as he says, “My Father worketh hitherto, and I work” (John v. 17). And for a standing rule to his disciples, he says, “Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in Heaven” (Matt. v. 16). “ Herein is my Father glorified, that ye bear much fruit; so shall ye be my disciples” (John xv. 8). This is spoken particularly of fruit in the church or family of Christ : but even in private families, and also in single respects by being diligent and industrious we may receive an extension of the divine blessing upon every thing that we do, and all our works be made to prosper. “The hand of the diligent maketh rich" (Prov. x. 4). Between the good objectives, diligence and Industry we do not find any material difference: but between these and

3, Expedition or Dispatch of the same class a difference is found, and difference enough to give the last mentioned an advantage in some respects. For diligence and industry do not necessarily imply any progress or effect, as expedition does : a man may be very diligent and industrious without forwarding any thing; but with expedition his work must be forwarded at least, if it be not finished. Expedition may also be considered more intellectual as well as more successful than diligence and industry in ordinary cases, which is another ground of preference. It may be so considered, because expedition depends, not on the rapidity or celerity employed in any undertaking, so much as on the skill and judgment with which it is directed. But while a general superiority is allowed to expedition, we should not omit one advantage on the other hand which its two partners before mentioned possess in a degree of perseverance that does not necessarily belong to expedition.

4, E.rertion is another property of the same class with a greater impetus or proportion of spirit, which is kept up by Persererance. And other excellent characteristics there are still that might be added to those already enumerated in the spiritual motive class; as activity, celerity and others, which are commonly spoken of, some more subjectively than objectively good, if not more essential than characteristic; and on either account not altogether so necessary to be here defined as to be more generally cultivated and practised. For how often has it happened, that a little more diligence and industry would have brought new forces into the field time enough to prerent defeat, a little more perseverance would have been crowned with opportunity, a little more exertion would have giren victory to

the vanquished, and freedom to a captive country! So our life is little else but a field of battle; the end of which is spiritual freedom to be only won by hard strokes and great dispatch. But no one ever does what he might have done with the same hands and feet only, to say nothing of the head and heart; so that we have little reason to complain of fortune. But to many, a life of strenuous exertion like that which our Saviour and his apostles recommended both by example and precept, may seem incompatible with another species of righteousness in the same department; that is,

5, Calmness or Peace, a degree of composure and tranquillity in the midst of agitation, another sort of evenness, evenness of temper; which the Christian will preserve among all his troubles and exertions, like a ship with good ballast in the midst of winds and waves. This calmness or peace is a delightful characteristic, and its possession a great advantage in life, which we owe to ourselves as well as to the benevolent Deity who formed us for happiness; whatever may be thought of the incompatibility of such a characteristic with the active virtues above mentioned. And if any man will but consult his own experience on the two conditions of idleness and industry, he may soon find which is the most for peace, the most tranquillizing, the most conducive to inward repose. An industry in wickedness must be owned not very conducive to peace of mind, nor yet even tranquil in fact, like industry in good works : such is the industry of those who have “ an heart that deviseth wicked imaginations, and feet that be swift in running to mischief” (Prov. vi. 18). But the industry of righteousness is tranquil in fact; and the fruit of such industry is peace and tranquillity. “Then judgment shall dwell in the wilderness, and righteousness remain in the fruitful field. And the work of righteousness shall be peace; and the effect of righteousness, quietness, and assurance for ever” (Isai. xxxii. 16, 17). “ O well is thee! and happy shalt thou be” (Ps. cxxviii. 2).

2. After the motive sort of good spiritual objective characteristics we meet with the spiritual sensitive in our upward progress, comprising such particulars, as 1, Temperance, abstinence, and the like; 2, Chastity, and some of a similar cast with that. There may be some doubt perhaps at first sight, whether the characteristics thus attributed to the sensitive class of constituents would not range more agreeably with the aversive, to be presently mentioned; as they rather seem to indicate a feeling of aversion: but further consideration will satisfy us that their general character is enjoyment, whatever may be their first appearance; and enjoyment of course cannot be altogether aversive, if it be not malicious.

1, It may also be questioned whether the first named, Temperance be a characteristic, founded on the forementioned essential constituents of the kingdom generally, or else on some of its incidentals; or whether it be not rather some foreign and independent property or power, something more divine than aught that can be implied in constituent characteristics whether founded on essentials or incidentals. But, whatever may be thought of the peculiarity, independence, or divinity of temperance, a man will be long to seek for a different principle or foundation for the same from what is found in any other property regarding two objects at once; as in judgment, decision, preference. Between the last of these and temperance the difference is chiefly in conception: it being the same in effect, whether between two objects compared, we prefer one or postpone the other: and the formation of preference being of acts by accidents like any other property, that of temperance will also be the same; whether it regard an external object or an internal, a lion or an inclination in one's path : in either case, temperance, keeping back will be the same property ; and like other properties, its own proprietor. Therefore, whatever other properties this of temperance may be combined and form subject or squadron with, it will be temperance that tempers or governs


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