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be heresie, but only such as have heretofore been determined, ordered, or adjudged to be heresie, by the authority of the canonical scriptures, or by the first four General Councils, or any of them, or by any other general council wherein the same was declared heresie by the express and plain words of the said canonical scriptures, or such as hereafter shall be ordered, judged, or determined to be heresie, by the high court of Parliament of this realm, with the assent of the clergy in their Convocation.—Gibson's Codex, p. 48.

Testimony of the Ecclesiastical Legislature to the


Canons of Ælfric, A.D. 970. 33. Quatuor Synodi erant pro vera fide adversus hæreticos, qui stulte loquebantur de Sacra Trinitate, et Salvatoris humanitate; prima fuit Nicææ, prouti antea memoravimus, et secunda fuit deinde Constantinopoli e centum quinquaginta episcopis, sanctis Dei viris; tertia fuit Ephesi, ubi ducenti episcopi erant, et quarta fuit Chalcedonii, ubi multæ centuriæ episcoporum erant : et hi omnes unanimes fuerunt inter se in constitutione quæ stabilita fuit Nicææ, et reparaverunt quicquid de ea violatum fuit. Hæ quatuor synodi observandæ sunt, prouti quatuor Christi libri in Ecclesia, Christi. Multæ Synodi deinde congregabantur, sed quatuor illæ sunt præcipuæ; quoniam extinxerunt hæreticas illas doctrinas, quas hæretici invenerunt hæretice adversus Deum, et ii etiam constituerunt ecclesiasticum ministerium.-Wilkins, Conc. i. 254.

Testimony of the Ecclesiastical Legislature to the first

Five General Councils.

Council of Hatfield, A.D. 680. Suscipimus sanctas et universales quinque Synodos beatorum et Deo acceptabilium patrum; id est qui in Nicea congregati fuerunt trecentorum decem et octo, contra Arium impiissimum, et ejusdem dogmata.

Et in Constantinopoli, centum quinquaginta, contra vesaniam Macedonii et Eudoxii, et eorum dogmata.

Et in Epheso, primo, ducentorum, contra nequissimum Nestorium, et ejusdem dogmata.

Et in Calcedone, sexcentorum et triginta, contra Eutychen et Nestorium, et eorum dogmata.

Et iterum in Constantinopoli quinto congregati sunt concilio, in tempore Justiniani Minoris, contra Theodorum, et Theodoreti et Iba Epistolas, et eorum dogmata contra Cyrillum.-Wilkins, Conc. i. 52.

Testimony of the Ecclesiastical Legislature to the first

Sir General Councils.

Council of Calchuythe, A.D. 785. Primo omnium admonentes, et sancta et inviolata fides Nicæni concilii ab omnibus, qui sacro cultui mancipantur, fideliter ac firmiter teneatur; et omni anno in synodalibus conventibus ab episcopis singularium Ecclesiarum presbyteri, qui populum erudire debent, de ipsa fide diligentissime examinentur, ita ut apostolicam fidem et universalem sex Synodorum per Spiritum Sanctum probatam, sicut tradita est nobis a Sancta Romana Ecclesia, per omnia confiteantur, teneant, et prædicent; et si opportunum venerit, pro ea mori non pertimescant : et quoscunque sancta universalia concilia susceperunt, suscipiant, et quos illa damnaverunt, eos et corde rejiciant et condemnent.-- Wilkins, Conc. i. 146. A

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I. NICE, A.D. 325 (A).

The first consisted of 3:18 Bishops (B) assembled at Nice in Bithynia, at the command of the emperor Constantine, to decide the genuine and Apostolic Faith of the Church concerning the divinity of the Son, Jesus Christ, which had been assailed by Arius, who denied that he was really God. This dispute gave rise to the adoption of the term Homoousion ómoovolov, with which the orthodox bishops endeavoured to guard the identity in substance and essence of the Divinity of the Son with that of the Father. The 318 bishops condemned Arius, and set forth a creed which is the foundation of that usually known as the Nicene, though on account of the additions which were made to it at the council of Constantinople, A.D. 381, it is more correctly styled the Constantinopolitan creed. The historian Theodoret mentions that there were present in the council many who still exercised apostolical gifts, of whom he instances James Bishop of Antioch, who had raised the dead to life. There were also many who, as he says, “ bore in their bodies the marks of the Lord Jesus,” being maimed and scarred with the cruelties they had suffered from heathen persecutors on account of their religion; and he instances Paul, Bishop of Neocæsarea, who had had both hands seared with hot irons; others had lost their right eyes; others had been ham-strung in the right leg : so that he says it was a band of martyrs met together. Besides the creed, they put forth twenty canons relating to discipline. They also determined the time for keeping Easter, according to the method which has since obtained throughout Christendom. Which subject had previously been, and continued for some time afterwards to be, a fruitful source of dispute.

The following is the creed put forth in this council:

We believe in one God the Father, Almighty, Maker of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, begotten of the Father, only-begotten, that is, of the substance of the Father, God of God, Light of Light, Very God of Very God, begotten not made, being of one

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