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Conc. xiii. 1—1264. For the Council of Constantinople which condemned it, see ibid. 1365.

Pisa. Milan. Lyons, A.D. 1511.

The style of a General Council was assumed by the French and Italian Bishops, who, without any concurrence on the part of the Bishop of Rome, assembled at Pisa, in the year 1511, thence moved to Milan, and afterwards to Lyons. Its proceedings were condemned by the Pope, Julius II., and they are not recognized by the Church of Rome.

XVIII. Lateran, 5. A.D. 1512—1517

The next Council admitted to be a General one by some of the Romans, is that of no more than 114 bishops assembled by Julius II., in opposition to that of Pisa abovementioned. They met in the Lateran Church in the year 1512. There is nothing worth noticing in its proceedings : and, indeed, according to Bellarmine, its authority altogether is a matter of dispute among the Romans themselves.—Conc. xiv. 1–344. Bellarm. de Conc. lib. ii. c. 13.

XVIII. Trent, A.D. 1545—1563.

The last Synod which claimed the character of a General Council, is that which was convened by

Paul III., at Trent, in the year 1545, and, by repeated prorogations, was continued throughout the reigns of his successors Julius III., Marcellus II., and Paul IV., and at last eoncluded under Pius IV., in the year 1563. For the enormity of its decrees, for its outrageous violations of foriner General Councils, and for its rash and reckless sentences of anathema, whereby, if they are to be understood retrospectively, four-fifths at least of the Fathers of the Church, will be found to be condemned, it is without parallel in the annals of the Christian Church. The number of bishops present at it was extremely limited. Labbé and Cossart state, that in the fourth session (which set forth the new canon of Scripture), there were three legates, eight Archbishops, and forty-three bishops, fifty-four in all; in the sixth (which issued the decrees concerning Justification), four Cardinals, ten Archbishops, and forty-seven Bishops, sixty-one in all : in the thirteenth (which defined Transubstantiation), four Legates, six Archbishops, and thirty-four Bishops—forty-four in all. In the last session, Labbé and Cossart have scraped together the names of seven Legates, two Cardinals, three Patriarchs, thirty-three Archbishops, and 237 Bishops, as present; making in all 282, besides eleven proxies. If this is correct, then the Council was very far from being of one mind. In a Roman edition of the Council before me, A.D. 1763, which contains Patrum subscriptiones, eadem prorsus ratione, ordineque, quo visuntur in authenticis actis, in Pontificio archivo custoditis," there appear no more than 200 signatures of cardinals, patriarchs, archbishops and bishops, present; and nineteen of persons representing themselves as proxies for thirtyfour others. This is the utmost strength of a synod which dared to anathematize the Catholic Church from its foundation, and to set up a new communion; and of these about two-thirds were from Italy (TT), the rest, with very few exceptions, from France and Spain: and the most flagrant of all the outrages which were there perpetrated, were the work of cabals varying from forty to sixty.-Conc. xiv. 725-938.




Constantinople, A.D. 754.

NoTE (A), PAGE 77.

'Έποίησε γάρ ο τοιούτος εικόνα, ονομάσας αυτήν Χριστόν. Και έστι το, Χριστός, όνομα, θεός και άνθρωπος λοιπόν, και εικών θεού και ανθρώπου. και λοιπόν ή συμπεριέγραψε κατά το δοκούν τη αυτού ματαιότητι το απερίγραφον της θεότητος τη περιγραφή της κτιστής σαρκός, ή συνέχεε την ασύγχυτον ένωσιν εκείνην, τω της συγχύσεως ανομήματι περιπεσών, δύο βλασφημίας εκ τούτου τη θεότητι προσάψας διά της περιγραφής τε και συγχύσεως.-Conc. vii. 436.

Σκοπητέον γάρ και εν τούτω, ότι εί κατά τους ορθοδόξους πατέρας, άμα σαρξ, άμα θεού λόγου σαρξ, μηδέποτε μερισμού έννοιαν δεχομένη, αλλ' όλη όλως τη θεία φύσει προσληφθείσα, και ολοκλήρως θεωθείσα, πώς διχασθήσεται, ή ιδιοστατηθήσεται παρά των ασεβώς τούτο δρών επιχειρούντων ; όπου γαρ ψυχή Χριστού, εκεί και η θεότης και όπου σωμα Χριστού, εκεί και η θεότης.-Ibid. 440, 441.

συναχθήσεται ούν τοϊς του Χριστού εικόνα γράφειν οίομένοις ή το θείον περιγραπτών και τη σαρκί συγχυθεν, ή το σώμα του Χριστου αθέατος και διηρημένον, κ. τ. λ.-Ιbid. 444.


NoTE (B), PAGE 78. ο δε τολμών από του παρόντος κατασκευάσαι εικόνα, ή προσκυνήσαι, ή στήσαι εν εκκλησία ή έν ιδιωτικό οίκο, ή κρύψαι, ει μεν επίσκοπος ή πρεσβύτερος ή διάκονος είεν, καθαιρείσθω.-Ιbid. 508.

Note (c), PAGE 78. Εί τις ουχ ομολογεί την αειπαρθένου Μαρίαν κυρίως και αληθώς θεοτόκον, υπερτέραν τε είναι πάσης ορατής και αοράτου κτίσεως, και μετα ειλικρινούς πίστεως τας αυτής ουκ εξαιτείται πρεσβείας, ως παρρησίαν εχούσης προς τον εξ αυτής τεχθέντα θεόν ημών, ανάθεμα. -Ibid. 524.

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NoTE (D), PAGE 78.

τας τούτων ουκ εξαιτείται προσευχάς, ως παρρησίαν εχόντων υπέρ του κόσμου πρεσβεύειν, κατά την εκκλησιαστικής παράδοσιν, ανάθεμα,-Ibid. 528.

NoTE (E), PAGE 7. Ευφρανθήτωσαν οι την αληθή του Χριστού εικόνα είλικρινεστάτη ψυχή ποιoύντες ... ήν αυτός ο ιεροτελεστής και θεός, το ημών εξ ημών ολικώς αναλαβόμενος φύραμα, κατά τον καιρόν του εκουσίου πάθους είς τύπον και αναμνησιν εναργεστάτην τοίς αυτού μύσταις παραδέδωκε.-Ιbid. 445.

Nice, II. A. D. 787.

NoTE (F), PAGE 79. Ut Constantinopoli conveniretur constitutum fuerat, et reipsa observatum.-Νοt. Sever, Bin. Conc. vii. 651.

NoTE (α), PAGE 79. Ita Sacrosancta Synodus oecumenica Constantinopoli turbata, Nicææ fuit habita, &c.—Ibid. ibid.

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