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stood, till he found them in such a situa- even do that which must at all times be tion as would'enable him to turn it to painful to a commander, I will retreat betheir discomfiture and defeat. Upon these fore the enemy. I will even retreat to principles he acted up to the battle of Sa- Ciudad Rodrigo, rather than give any adlamanca, and when the French crossed the vantage to the enemy; but if, in the Douro, (an opportunity of which lord course of my retreat, I can take any opWellington could not deprive them from portunity of attacking him with a prospect being in possession of the fords and of success ;-if bis weakness, or my ad. bridges, so that it was impossible for him, dress, should enable me to take any adwith an inferior army, to make the Douro vantage of him, without committing my a military position,) he then retreated; but own army, without committing my coun. his retreat was made on this principle.- try, and above all without commiiting “ If you give me an advantage, I will at that great interest entrusted to my tack you, but otherwise I will not put to care, then will I revenge the crimes by the risk of a single battle the cause of the which France has disgraced herself; and peninsula, which may ultimately triumph attacking the enemy with that spirit and without such a sacrifice.” And what was firmness which belongs to my nature, the result of this determination? It led to make him feel what my countrymen are that great action, which not only filled capable of effecting in such a cause.". the nation with gratitude, but inspirited Such had been the object, and such was other countries to oppose the aggressions the language of our illustrious commander; of France-an action, of which it was and the proud and ever-memorable vic. justly said, on a former evening, that, in tory of Salamanca grew out of this resoluthe history of all the battles which the tion. He asked the House, whether be campaign in Spain, or in any other coun- had not faithfully performed the promised try, presented, there was none which could object, by a battle, than which there was be less imputed to chance than the battle never one fought more nobly, or with of Salamanca. It was not one, the armies more advantage to the common cause? engaged in which met but the hour before Twenty thousand men had been put hors they engaged, and decided the struggle de combat; and the advantage would have by force of arms unaided by policy ; but been still greater, had not night, and the it was a battle fought between two great force of nature, interfered to prevent all armies (for they both were great) nearly those results which were aspired after. equal in numbers, though a superiority The loss of the French army in the fight, was certainly on the side of the enemy, and through the consequences which natuafter looking at each other, and not only rally resulted from it, could not be estima. looking at each other, but watcbing, ma- ted at less than the above number. He næuvring in each others presence for an contended, that the plan of campaign, as advantageous opportunity of attack, from originally conceived by lord Wellington, the 16th of July to the 22d of that month, (which did not aspire to effect the total the day on which the glorious and ever- expulsion of the enemy, whose expulsion, memorable battle of Salamanca was fought. on military principles, was not to be ex. -Without going into the detail, which he pected, even from a victory glorious as thought unnecessary, as every English- that of Salamanca) had been perfectly rea. man must be familiar with it, from having lized. The object of lord Wellington's read the Gazette with the highest interest operations in the north was to force the and delight over and over again; he enemy to quit his hold of the country in would repeat that this was à victory the south, and to do that wbich the French achieved after maneuvres the most com.

officers were instructed by their governplicated, where two armies were long in ment never to do, if it could by possibility sight of each other, each observing what be avoided, namely, to raise the siege of the other did, and trying, by every effort Cadiz. The French government was of military skill, to take advantage of any afraid of the moral effects of their raising errors that might occur. The greatness the siege of Cadiz, and hence these orders; of his mind was the admiration of all as they believed that while they appeared Europe. In him was seen a general not in strength before Cadiz, the world would tenacious of what might be said by his give them credit for being strong in Spain. enemies, not putting to risk his army to He put it to the House, then, if the operamaintain a particular position, but saying tions of lord Wellington had not compelled to himself and to his government, “ I will the enemy to abandon the siege of Cadiz,

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the whole of Andalusia, and let them with- pulse and turned their backs on the exer. out any force to the westward of Alicant. tions of Spain) did they think that that What was the situation of Spain at present? spirit had nothing to do with that which Lord Wellington had said, that but for had recently manifested itself in another one unfortunate circumstance the success part of the world ? Even the retreat of of the campaign would have been certain. lord Wellington to Torres Vedras had Success would have been certain, had not been of service to that power wbich now, the French collected the whole of their awakened to a sense of its own strength, disposable force, amounting to not less than had resisted and chastised the power of 70 or 80,000 men, upon the Tormes, and France, and from which so much might be compelled lord Wellington prudentially to augured for Europe. But with Russia,'the make a retreat, a retreat which was more hopes excited by the Spanish resistance like the prelude to a victory than a proof did not end : beginning at the extremity, of disaster. The enemy had only been it was to be hoped its influence would exenabled to compel him to retreat by an tend further into Europe-o those powers abdication of every military principle which now, indeed, appeared to form a which had regulated their conduct before. part of the strength of France, but which, If Madrid had been a position of military in fact, were only unnaturally connected importance, which it was not, the case with her, he meant the whole power of would have been materially different from Germany. Such were the effects resultwhat it at present appeared. Lord Welling from this battle; and which the House lington had not taken possession of it as a might justly trace to itself, as well as to military position, nor had he advanced its brave army, and its distinguished ge

, upon it for the vain glory of taking the neral. Did the House know that the chaenemy's capital, he did nothing for mere racter of the great battle of Borodino, for parade-he went there on this principle; it was a great battle, was partly caused by he knew that unless by advancing he lord Wellington; a batile greater than threw a large force on the flank of Soult, that of Eylau, greater than that of Aspern, he could not make that general do what and that in which the power of France was really the object of his operations had received one of the severest checks it raise the siege of Cadiz, while Andalusia had ever received. In that great battle, in and the southern provinces of Spain were which 70 or 80,000 men laid down their delivered from the enemy. What, too, lives, it was consoling to know that prince was the result of these operations ? The Kutusoff had it in his power, on the mornFrench, in consequence, did abandon ing of that day, to animate his troops by Cadiz; they had since abandoned Madrid, telling them of the glory gained by the and thus had lost the moral conquest of English on the plains of Salamanca.- Did Spain. They were obliged to evacuate not the House feel that it must be most the capital in their turns as well as us, and animating to the Russian army to know that were now only in possession of the ground the marquis of Wellington had at Salaon which they stood, and as far as ever manca completely routed the French from effecting the military or moral sub- army? To be told, that if they stood to jogation of the country. And, he should the enemy like Englishmen, they would be glad to know a position in which a achieve as great a triumph, and as great French army could be placed, less useful a triumph they did achieve ? For, though to themselves or less prejudicial to the in- from various circumstances it was found terests of Europe? But if they were to impossible to follow up that victory, still measure the influence of the victory of it was a victory, than which a prouder Salamanca only by what it had produced triumph never was obtained by the forces in Spain, he would say, their estimate of of any country.-In that action, that disits value would be most unfair, most un tinguished general prince Bagration, whose wise, most untrue, in the circumstances in loss we had since to deplore, with 30,000 which Europe was at present placed. Did I men, repelled the whole military power of the House imagine that that spirit of re. France directed to one point. But it was sistance which grew out of that House, or not at Borodino only that lord Wellington rather out of that people they represented had served the cause of Russia by the in that House, (for be should like to know influence of his actions, and where the that ministers could have retained their moral effects of his victory were found situations in this country, who al such a they pei vaded the whole Russian empire. period had not obeyed the universal im- Russia had been assisted by his military

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councils. The principle on which Russia so far from finding any support in the pobad acted on the opening of the campaign pulation of the country, or in the army was that which was recommended by the which he commanded, which was warmly marquis of Wellington. He had said, if attached to him, and which he had often Russia adopted that system she was safe. led to victory, he found no one to stand It was on that principle that he had for by him. Even that particular division of merly defended Portugal; so that Russia his army, which had till then considered might be supposed to have derived equal | its fame as bound up in him, did not benefit from his councils and example. furnish a man to stand by him on the At the moment the French had taken principles be avowed respecting the apMoscow, it was some consolation to our pointment of lord Wellington. He was allies to know that lord Wellington, by made a prisoner by his own soldiers, and pursuing a plan similar to that on which delivered up in obedience to the orders they were acting, had taken Madrid ; received from Cadiz. This was a conand what was more, that he had forced quest over national feeling most glorious the enemy to give up that which, for lo lord Wellington, and he trusted be more than two years, they had anxiously would now induce the Spaniards to surcarried on the siege of Cadiz. It was render all their prejudices. immediately subsequent to their receiving triumph for the gallant marquis greater intelligence of this, that Murat met with than had ever been obtained by any other that defeat which sealed the necessity of man, and perhaps it was the proudest Buonaparté’s retreat from Moscow. The trophy of lord Wellington's greatness, effects, then, of the battle of Salamanca that he had not merely defeated the were to be traced not only in Spain, but French armies, but that he had conquered in Russia ; and not only in Russia, but the moral feeling of Spain, however laudthrough all the world ; its ramifications able and useful that feeling might be on were felt to excite those who suffered other occasions. It must be admired for under the tyrant of France to rise to re- the sake of the common cause, that his sistance. There was yet one other extra- conduct had occasioned the surrender of | ordinary and most important result seen old national prejudices. The general conproceeding from the battle of Salamanca, duct of Spain was a point on which some in the conquest it gave lord Wellington controversy might arise, and therefore it over Spain herself; for he would put it to was one which he wished to reserve for the House, with their knowledge of the another day. He hoped however the

. pride of the Spaniards, their distinguished House would not feel disposed to decide pride, their honourable pride, and, in at once against them. There might be many instances, their useful pride, for he much lo regret, some things to complain did not know but that their pride opposed of not as to a disposition to cross our a more effectual bar to foreign conquest interests, but on account of their relucthan almost any other nation could op- tance; to put it more early in our power pose to it he put it, then, to the House, to do them as much service as we might. what must be the effect of lord Welling. Still, however, when it was recollected ton's exploits on the Spanish mind, what what was the situation in which that the ascendancy of character which he had country had been placed, brought into an gained, when the united voice of the extraordinary and unparalleled conjuncwhole nation gave him the command of ture ; betrayed by her own government, their whole military means. If a proof and surprised by an enemy; at a time were wanting of the universality of this when she was without an army, without feeling in the Spanish people; if a proof magazines, without officers, or any thing were wanting that that honour was not on which to begin a determined resist. conferred on him merely by the majority ance, collected against the breaking out of the Spanish councils, the Cortes or the of the war, as in Russia. Under all these Regency, they could bring it to no better difficulties, however, her spirit had so far test, than was furnished by the conduct of borne her successfully through the conthat unfortunate officer general Ballasteros, test; and taking the question, not as it lo whose neglect and disobedience of the stood between us and Spain, but as it orders he received was in no small degree stood: between Spain and France, and attributable the speedy advance of the seeing that the chances were more enemy. What, bowever, was the result against the enemy now than at any pe: of this test? It appeared in his case, that riod of the long contest in which she had


been engaged, he hoped the House would | induce him to encumber himself with look at her difficulties as well as her de them. He sustained no loss but what falcations. If she had not been able to might be expected in the ordinary course equal our wishes, she had more than of service. After having accomplished equalled our hopes. If she had not been every military object which he had in able to bring large regular armies into view, he had retired with glory. His chathe field, her irregular forces had risen racter never appeared more glorious. Our in such strength, that at one time they ac- credit and our hopes were never higher in tually so completely divided the French Spain than at the present time; and if we armies from each other, that each was igo could not now drive the enemy over the norant of the way in which the other was Pyrenees, it was evident the enemy could occupied. Spain had laboured under not conquer Spain, and might be said to greater difficulties than any other country, have little more hold of the country than and had done more. With respect to the they would have, if, having been forced assistance given her by England, though to recross the Pyrenees, they were accuhe would hereafter challenge any man to mulating strength, and waiting an opporshow that ministers had withheld from tunity to return.—He would now cons her any assistance they had it in their clude, hoping, that though he had gone at power to give; he did not wish to bring greater length into the subject than be ibis point into discussion. We had as thought of doing, that he had not wearied sisted her as promptly as we could, with the patience of the House, that he had not all we could spare from ourselves, and introduced any question of military powhen it was considered that this for a time licy that would awaken a controversial was all the means of resistance she had feeling, and above all, that he had not to work upon ; when, too, it was recol appeared desirous of screening ministers lected, that all her resources from South from censure under the great and illusAmerica, which had always supported trious name of the marquis of Wellington. her, were cut off for'a considerable pe- Any charges as to the means they bad afriod, the wonder was that she had done so forded, or ought to have afforded lord much, rather than that she had done no Wellington, they were anxious to meet on more. All the claim that he meant to a future day. They had no wish to hang prefer this night was this, that the services the conduct of government on the neck of lord Wellington, and the battle of Sa- of lord Wellington, but were content to lamanca, were not to be considered merely stand or fall on their own merits. He then as important in themselves, but as produc- moved, “ That the thanks of this House tive of great military consequences in be given to general the marquis of WelSpain, and_great moral consequences lington, for the many and great services throughout Europe. With respect to the which he has rendered to this kingdom, original plan of the campaign, on the and to his Majesty's allies, during the principles of which he acted, and still late campaign; and more particularly for more with the aid of the original docu. the glorious and decisive victory obtained ments in the possession of government, he near Salamanca, by the allied army under (lord Castlereagb) begged to say that lord his lordship's command, upon the 22d of Wellington had not only accomplished all July last, whereby the French power in be expected, but more than all he had Spain has been essentially diminished, the hoped to perform, and retired to the fron- siege of Cadiz has been raised, and the tier baving raised the siege of Cadiz, freed southern provinces of the peninsula have Andalusia, triumphed over danger, and been rescued from the hands of the enemy." gained immortal glory. If they watched Sir Francis Burdett professed himself to his advance and retreat, it would be found be incompetent to follow the details of that no disasters had occurred to damp our military operations, so as to be able to satisfaction. Only observe the skilfulness offer an opinion upon them; indeed, he with which our great commander exe- did not much like the agitation of such cuted that retreat. We heard of no rear- subjects in that House : but the noble guards surprised; no guns or stores taken lord had entered into a variety of subjects, by the enemy, except iwo or three in one and seemed disposed to call upon the place, which did not belong to his equip- House to sanction the whole conduct of ment, and which he could have carried the government respecting the conduct of off with little trouble, had they come with the campaign, and to endeavour to shew in the scope of his main object so as to that they had not been wanting in afford. (VOL. XXIV.)


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ing supplies to lord Wellington. (No! | ever. Until he had heard it from the no! from the other side.) As far as he noble lord that evening, he had never ununderstood the noble lord, what he had derstood that it was totally out of the consaid went to shew, that government had templation of government to expel the supplied every thing that had been essen- French out of Spain. What the noble tial to the success of the marquis of Wel- lord called success, he called defeat; lington.-[Lord Castlereagh disavowed for he never could have imagined that having made any such statement, and an expenditure of one million a month said, he had particularly guarded himself had taken place in the military departagainst such a construction.]–He begged 'ment of this country for the last eleven the noble lord's pardon if he had misunder months, for no other purpose than raising stood him, but he could not upon all the siege of Cadiz. As to the Andalusias, occasions comprehend the course of his they must fall again, as a mattter of course, arguments. Il often fell to his lot to be into the bands of France. Under all the totally incapable of collecting the meaning circumstances of the contest, it appeared of the noble lord; and now, amidst his to him, even upon the ministers' own shewmany tropes and figures, and words about | ing, that we were unable to find sufficient circumstances and details, he felt that there means to support the campaign; and that was in

many instances no distinct idea after lord Wellington's retreat, he had conveyed to his mind. He yet did ima- only the two fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo gine that some excuse was indirectly in- and Badajoz, left to him as the fruits of his tended for the conduct of his Majesty's campaign in Spain. Wbat! were we to ministers. He was not very much diso be satisfied after all the splendid victories posed on any occasion, when a yote of wbich had been gained in the course of Thanks was proposed for services per the present campaign-after the exhausted formed by the British army, whether state to which the French troops had those services had been attended with been reduced by their incursion into success or defeat, to give such a vote any Russia, and more particularly after the opposition. Far was he from wishing in- glorious, important, and unparalleled vicvidiously to detract from the merits of tory of Salamanca, so highly advantageous men who had deroted their exertions to in its consequences to the general affairs the service of their country, or to with of the peninsula, were we to be satisfied hold from them any recompence which it by a retreat ? Were we not to take adwas in the power of the House to bestow. vantage of all those gratifying and cheering But when he heard it stated that the vice circumstances ? Were we to suffer the tory, gained over the French forces in French troops to recover from the effects Spain was more important in its conse- of their discomfiture and exhaustion, and quences than any which had been gained to wait until the tide of good fortune in former times, and that the victory of which had attended us had flowed back Salamanca was equal to that of the duke upon its source? It seemed to him, that of Marlborough at the battle of Blenheim, such propositions were totally inconsistent in which tbe enemy lost 20,000 men, had with the obvious rules of common sense their general, marshal Tallard, taken, and and reason. And yet, where now was the 30 or 40 squadrons driven into the Rhine, marquis of Wellington? In what direction and other great battles, which bad com- were we to look for the glorious results of pletely changed the aspect of the whole the campaign? In what manner was the affairs of Europe-hough not desirous of diminution of the French power in Spain undervaluing the merits of the great evinced? The noble lord had slightly general whose achievements were meant touched upon the most important feature to be extolled, and whose character and of the war, the failure of the siege of ability no man could more sincerely ad- Burgos. If the word of the noble lord mire than he did ; yet he could not suffer was to be taken, nothing on this occasion such delusions to go forth uncontradicted, was to be imputed to the commander of the more especially, when he considered the forces. Lord Wellington did all that that they were calculated to plunge the a great commander could do, and all that country, under the direction of the same his means rendered him capable of perpersons, still deeper in a destructive and forming. If this was the case, then either ruinous war. He contended that, after the government had not supplied lord these boasted and overpraised victories, Wellington with the means adequate to we were still as far from our object as accomplish his purpose, or, possessed of

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