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on with a hyphen ; thus, to-think, to-write, to-say. There are authors, however, who carelessly or conceitedly break up what is to all intents and purposes one word, by wedging an adverb into its body. The habitual phrasing of such writers is 'to mathematically think,' 'to elegantly write,' 'to cogently say.' Not only adverbs, but whole adverbial phrases, are now thrust between the particle to and the main body of the verb. 'To in a certain measure accept,' is a fine specimen, which I captured a few days ago in the jungle of a leading article."

Careful writers and speakers separate to from the infinitive mood only when they have some special reason for doing so. It is one of the things that every dictionist nowadays seeks to avoid.

To never more (never more to] engage with so deceptive an adversary.”—Phila. Ledger.

“The bill is described as an act to better [better to] protect public morals."

“There is a disposition not to tamely (tamely to) yield.” -N. Y. Sun.

“It would puzzle the average lawyer to properly [properly to] determine," etc.-Evening Sun.

“Admiral S. will go to Formosa to formally [formally to] annex the island.”—N. Y. Sun.

“ It is said that China hopes to easily seasily to] procure in France funds to enable her to promptly (promptly to] pay the indemnity."—N. Y. Sun.

It is a rule of grammar that to, the sign of the infinitive mood, should not be used for the infinitive itself; thus, “He has not done it, nor is he likely to.” Strictly,

nor is he likely to do it.” To observe this rule always would be rather pedantic.

Very often to is misused for at; thus, “I have been to

on.

the theater, to church, to my uncle's, to a concert,” and so

In all these cases the preposition to use is clearly at, and not to. See also AND.

Often used redundantly; as, “Where are you going to?” “Where have you been to?.

To the fore. An old idiomatic phrase, now freely used again.

Tongue. “Much tongue and much judgment seldom go together.”—L'Estrange. See LANGUAGE. See page 324.

Toward. Those that profess to know about such things say that etymology furnishes no pretext for the adding of s to ward in such words as backward, forward, toward, upward, onward, downward, afterward, heavenward, earthward, and the like.

Transferred epithet. This is the shifting of a qualifying word from its proper subject to some allied subject. Examples:

"The little fields made green

By husbandry of many thrifty years." “ He plods his weary way." “ Hence to your idle bed!By this figure the diction is rendered more terse and vigorous; it is much used in verse. For the sake of conciseness, it is used in prose in such phrases as the lunatic asylum, the criminal court, the condemned cell, the blind asylum, the cholera hospital, the foundling asylum, and the like.

“Still in harmonious intercourse they lived

The rural day, and talked the Rowing heart.” “There be some who [that], with everything to make them happy, plod their discontented and melancholy way through life, less grateful than the dog that licks the hand that feeds it.”

Transpire. This is one of the most frequently misused words in the language. Its primary meaning is, to evaporate insensibly through the pores, but in this sense it is not used; in this sense we use its twin sister, perspire. Transpire is now properly used in the sense of to escape from secrecy ; to become known; to leak out; and improperly used in the sense of to occur ; to happen ; to come to pass, and to elapse.

The word is correctly used thus: “You will not let a word concerning the matter transpire”; “It transpires [leaks out] that S. & B. control the enterprise ";

“ Soon after the funeral it transpired [became known] that the dead woman was alive”; “It has transpired [leaked out] that the movement originated with John Blank”; “ No report of the proceedings was allowed to transpire”; “ It has not yet transpired who the candidate is to be”; “At the examination it transpired that Pook has a wife and four children.”

The word is incorrectly used thus :

“The Mexican war transpired in 1847”; “The drill will transpire under shelter"; "The accident transpired one day last week”; “ Years will transpire before it will be finished ” ; “More than a century transpired before it was revisited by civilized man.”

“The verb transpire formerly conveyed very expressively its correct meaning, viz., to become known through unnoticed channels; to exhale, as it were, into publicity through invisible pores, like a vapor or [a] gas disengaging itself. But of late a practice has commenced of employing this word . . . as a mere synonym of to happen. This vile specimen of bad English is already seen in the dispatches of noblemen and viceroys.”—Mill.

Mr. Edgar Fawcett uses transpire in a manner peculiarly his own, as we see by the following example:

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“ My indignation had meanwhile transpired, and gossip boiled and bubbled at The Metropolitan."

Trifing minutiæ. The meaning of trifles and the meaning of minutiæ are so nearly the same that no one probably ever uses the phrase trifling minutiæ except from thoughtlessness.

Trustworthy. See RELIABLE.

Try. This word is often improperly used for make. We make experiments, not try them, which is as incorrect as it would be to say, try the attempt, or the trial.

Try and. Often very improperly used for try to. We try to be on time, to know our lessons, to speak correctly, to do our best, etc.

Twice over. The over, in a sentence like the following, serves no purpose :

"Now, to say a thing twice over in different ways is as much a waste of energy as,” etc.—Dr. Hodgson.

Say over is used here, it will be seen, in the sense of express.

Ugly. In England this word is restricted to meaning ill-favored ; with us it is often used-and not without authority-in the sense of ill-tempered, vicious, unmanageable. H. Reeves says that a British traveler, walking one day in the suburbs of Boston, saw a woman whipping a screaming child. “Good woman,” said he, “why do you whip the boy so severely?” She answered, “Because he is so ugly.The Englishman walked on, and put down in his journal : “Mem. American mothers are so cruel as to whip their children because they are not handsome.”

Unbeknown. This word is no longer used except by the unschooled.

Underhanded. This word, though found in the dictionaries, is a vulgarism, and as such is to be avoided The proper word is under hand. An under hand, not an underhanded, proceeding.

Under his signature. See SIGNATURE.

Understand. Sometimes improperly used in the locution understand about, which is unidiomatic; the proper word to use being know, as in the sentence, “A large number of our graduates certainly understand a great deal about the subject.”

Under the circumstances. " How few,” says Prof. Hodgson, “perceive the false metaphor of under the cir. cumstances-i. e., the surroundings."

“Mere situation is expressed by ' in the circumstances '; action affected is performed 'under the circumstances.”' Murray's New English Dictionary. The French say,

in the circumstances.” Unique. Sometimes improperly used in the sense of beautiful. Properly, the word means singular; uncommon ; rare ; unlike anything else.

Universal-All. He is universally esteemed by all who know him." If he is universally esteemed, he must be esteemed by all who know him ; and if he is esteemed by all who know him, he must be universally esteemed. Say, therefore, “He is universally esteemed,” or “He is esteemed by all who know him.” Either expression covers the whole ground.

Unless. Sometimes, though rarely, misused for except.

He did not ask her to be his wife unless [except) in public.”—Paris Corr. N. Y. Tribune.

Upon. Much used where on would be more in accordance with the best usage. We call on persons, and speak on subjects.

Upward of. This phrase is often used, if not improperly, at least inelegantly, for more than ; thus, “I have

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