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mann, Shield, Crotch, and Kunberger, have also illustrated this subject.

11. This new light shed on the principles of music, has enabled succeeding artists to carry, what is called modern symphony, to a very high degree of refinement and perfection. In this new style of music, greater attention than formerly, is paid to contrast and effect ;-it is also distinguished by more spright'iness and variety. And, if it be less simple, and less easy of acquisition, than former music, it contains, at the same time, a greater predomination of air and melody, and is better calculated to make new, surprizing, and diversified impressions. Vanhall, Haydn, Pleyel, Mozart, and Kozeluch, all of Germany, are eminently distinguished for this sort of music.

12. Italian music did not become fusbionable in England, until the commencement of the eighteenth century. The first opera upon the Italian plan was performed in 1705. Compositions derived from the same source have since become popular and general.

13. The sacred musical drama, or oratorio, was invented in Italy, in the beginning of the fourteenth century, but was never publicly exhibited in Great Britain, until introduced by George Frederick Handel, in 1732. This wonderful genius had come from Germany to England, about twenty years before, and by his zeal, and the incomparable excellence of his compositions, formed a grand æra in the history of music. " His Oratorios, including the chorusses which he brought into use, were exhibitions of the first order. We cannot here resist the opportunity of entering our decided protest against that scandalous mixture of sucred and profane music, which now pollutes the representation of the sacred drama. The genius of Handel is not unfrequently buried amid the rubbish, the licentiousness, and the foolery of modern Italian music.

14. MUSICAL GLASSES. (1.) Harmonica. This instru. ment, invented by Dr. Franklin, is formed of glass, on which by rubbing the fingers according to certain rules, the most delightful music is produced. Mr. Puckeridge, an Irish gentleman, was the first who played regular tunes on this instrument. Mr. Delaval made some improvements, which were augmented by Dr. Franklin. Since his death,

Dr. E. Cullen of Edinburgh has invented an instrument of the same nature, but much more extensive and complicated. The great excellencies of the harmonica, as an instrument of music, are, that its tones are incomparably sweet, beyond those of any other--that they may be swelled and sostened at pleasure, by stronger or weaker pressures of the finger---that they may be continued to any length and that the instruinent being once well Kined, nerer again wants tuning.

(2.) Euphon. This instrument was invented in 1790, by Dr. Chladni, a philosopher of Germany. Like the harmonica, it is performed with the hand on glasses; but it differs from that instrument in several respects.

The music of the harmonica is produced by rubbing the edges of glass vessels in a circular direction ; whereas the music of the euphon is effected by rubbing the surface of long glass . tubes, in the direction of right lines. In the number and sweetness of its tones, the latter approaches nearly to the excellence of the former; but is much superior in simplicity; in the ease and expedition with which the music is produced ; and in the cheapness of construction.

15. The great musical composers of the eighteenth and the present century are, in addition to those already named, in England, Arne, Boyce, Greene, Arnold, Avison, Burney, Mr. Jackson of Exeter, Wesley, and Dr. Crotch ; in France, Bertier, Piccini, Gosec, and Gretry ;-in Germany, Graun, Abel, Fischer, Sebastian and Emanuel Bach, Christian Bach, and Gluck ;--and in Italy, Martini, Metastatio, Bononcini, Alessandri, and many others. The musical performers are chiefly natives of Italy and Germany. The fame of Nicolini, Farinelli, Gabrielli, J. B. Cramer, Salomon, Spagnoletti, Wesley, Crotch, and many others, has long pervaded the musical world.

Select Books on Music. Dr. Busby's Dictionary of Music, and Dr. Calcott's Musical Grammar, 2nd edition, are written for beginners. Kollman's Practical Guide to Thorough Bass. A familiar Introduction to the practice of Thorough Bass, by Mr. Webbe, published by Hodso!! of Holborn,

Select Books on Music / continued.) As the practical treatises on this science, which are usually sold under the title of “ Books of Instruction," are very worthless, it may not be amiss to notice a few publications which are really works of merit. The Books of Instruction published by the fol. lowing authors may be depended on :--- For the Piano, those by Clementi, Gunn, and Williams. For the Violoncello, those by Gunn and Macdonald--For the Violin, those by Philpot and Geminjani :-_and for the Flute, those, by Monzani, Wrazg, and Devienne.

Rousseau, Dictionnaire de Musique, 8vo. There is a translation of this book, but it cannot be recommended. Dr. Crotch's Elements of Musical Composition, 4to. Shield on Harmony. Smith's Harmo. nics, 8vo. Dr. Burney's History of Music, 4 vols. 4to. and Musical Travels, 3 vols., 8yo.


Part VII.-Phykes.

Natural History. 1. WHILE we contemplate the infinitely varied forms in the field of nature, and trace their gradations or connexions, we possess the peculiar advantage of uniting amusement with instruction, and our minds are impressed with a train of the most pleasing ideas, It is no unimportant object, to be able to secure to ourselves some species of study, which, in its progress, may continue to afford a rational delight, and in the pursuit of which there 'can be no fear of soon exhausting the subject. The celebrated RAY, speaking of the study of natural history, says, “No knowledge can be more pleasant to the soul than this ; none so sat:sfying, or that doth so feed the mind; in comparison of which, the study of words and phrases seemeth insipid and jejune; for words being but the images of things, to be given up wholly to their study, what is it but to verify the folly of Pygmalion, to fall in love with a statue, and neglect the reality! The treasures of nature are inexhaustible: there is enough for the most indefatigable industry, the happiest opportunities, the most prolix and undisturbed vacancies.”

2. The study of natural history consists in the collection, arrangement, and exhibition of the various productions of the earth. These are divided into the three grand kingdoms of nature, the mineral, the vegetable, and the animal. (1.) Minerals inhabit the interior parts of the earth. They are concrete bodies, without life and sensation. (2.) Vegetables clothe the surface with verdure, iunbibe nourishment through bibulous roots, breathe by leaves, and continue their kind by the dispersion of seed within prescribed limits. They are organized bodies, and have life, but not sensation. (3.) Animals inhabit the exterior parts of the earth, respire, and generate eges, are


impelled to action by hunger, affections, and pain ; and by preying on other animals and vegetables, restrain within proper bounds and proportions the numbers of both. They have organized bodies, life, sensation, and the power of locomotion.

3. Dust and earth are the principle and matter of the composition of all solid bodies. Therefore these are found in all bodies decomposed by human art. From the union of earth with salts, oils, sulphurs, &c. result different kinds of earths, more or less compound, light, or compact. These lead us insensibly to the mineral kingdom. There is a great variety of stones ; and their fórm, colour, size, and hardness, are very different. In them we find all sorts of saline and metallic particles; whence minerals and precious stones proceed. In the latter class of stones, some are found which are fibrous, and have laminæ, or a kind of leaves, as slate, tale, lythophytes, or stony marine plants: the amianthus, or stony flower of mines; and these Jead us from the mineral to the vegetable, kingdom. The plant which appears to occupy the lowest part of vegetable gradation is the truffle. Next come the numerous species of mushrooms and mosses, between which, mould on paste, &c. seems to form the connecting medium. All these plants are imperfect, and properly constitute only the limits of the vegetable kingdom.

4. The polypus seems to unite the vegetable and animal kingdoms. From its outward appearance, this singular production might be taken for nothing more than a mere plant, were it not seen to perform real animal functions. This zoophyte seems to form the counecting link between plants and animals. Worms, which are at the commencement of the animal kingdom, lead us to insects. Those worms whose bodies are inclosed in a stony or scaly shell, seem to unite insects and shell-fish. Between them, or rather next to them, are found reptiles ; these by means of the water-snake, are united to fish. The flying-fish leads us to fowls. The ostrich, whose feet very nearly resemble those of the goat, and who runs rather than flies, seems to connect birds with quadrupeds. And the ape joins hands with quudrupeds and men.

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