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use" of the members of Queen's College, Oxford.* He also speaks himself in one place of the pain it gave him to "re-visit the Fancies of [his] Youth," which his "judgement" told him were "all too green;" and in another, of his "Lines" having "serv'd [his] Youth to vent some wanton cries." If these expressions refer to any Amatory" songs, they may be still concealed among the many scattered poems of the Elizabethan age to which no author's name can be attached with certainty. No such inference, however, can be drawn from the following Epigram, which was addressed to him in or before 1598 :


"Wotton, the country and the country swayne,—
How can they yeelde a Poet any sense?
How can they stirre him vp, or heat his vaine?
How can they feede him with intelligence?
You haue that fire which can a witt enflame,
In happy London, Englands fayrest eye:
Well may you Poets haue of worthy name,
Which haue the foode and life of poetry.

And yet the country or[e] the towne may swaye,
Or beare a part, as clownes doe in a play.”

(Bastard's Chrestoleros, 1598, Lib. ii. p. 29.)

Zouch thought that Wotton was here addressed "as a poet;"

* See Walton's Lives, p. 125, ed. 1796. (That edition is always used in the following references.) The remarks in the Introd. to No. i should not have been confined to Bastard's Epigram; for though I was not referring to the Tragedy, Wotton's own expressions ought to have been mentioned.Mr. Gilchrist had a volume entitled "A Courtlie controversie of Cupid's Cautels," &c. "translated out of French by Henry Wotton," 1578 (Cens. Lit. x. 318, ed. 1815); but the future Sir Henry was then only ten years old. There were others who bore the same name at an earlier period. (See Wood's A. O. i. 227, and Fasti, i, 149, 161, 180.)-Sir Henry's halfbrother, John, (who was born April 11: 1550: and was knighted by Queen Elizabeth, and whose " death in his younger years," says Walton, “put a period to his growing hopes,") is supposed by Brydges to have been the author of two poems in England's Helicon (pp. 49, 65, repr.), which bear the signature of "Iohn [and I.] Wootton."

+ See this vol. pp. 23, 41.-Wotton seems to speak of another unknown poem, written at a much later date, in Rel. Wotton. pp. 444, 566.

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-Warton puts it, more correctly, "as a scholar and a pa-
tron." Bastard says nothing of his being a Poet, but that
those who lived in London might expect to "haue Poets of
worthy name," because they had "the foode and life of

The First Part does not contain all the extant poems
which were composed by Wotton; but the others which
have been ascribed to him bear traces of maturer age,-with
the exception, perhaps, of his share in "a Dialogue between
Sir Henry Wootton and Mr. Donne," which was printed
among Donne's Poems.† Wotton may have written some
of the pieces in Part II. of which Walton only knew that
they were found among his papers;-in one case especially,
the "Description of the Country's Recreations," this seems
very probable; and it is also possible that he was the
author of one poem in Part III., the "Farewell to the Van-
ities of the World," though it was never included among
his Remains. The following lines, which were prefixed to
Howell's Dodona's Grove, must be ranked among his latest
compositions, as the book (which would be submitted to him
in MS.) was not published till the year after his death :



"Beleeve it, Sir, you happily have hit
Vpon a curious Fancie, of such wit,
That farre transcends the vulgar; for each Line
Me thinks breathes Barclay, or a Boccoline.

* Zouch's Walton, p. 191. Warton's Milton's Minor Poems, p. 119, ed. 1791.-Bastard inscribed another Epigram to Henry Wotton, Lib. iv. Ep. 39, p. 102. He had been his contemporary at Oxford. See Wood's A. O. ii. 227. The name of " Sr Henry Wotton" was inserted in the first sketch of Bolton's Hypercritica, among those of " the best Authors for written English." He is there certainly among the Poets, by the side of " Beniamin Johnson." See Anc. Crit. Essays, ii. 247, note.

+ See this vol. p. 10. Donne addressed three Poetical Epistles to Wotton (pp. 61, 76, 104, ed. 1633. The last is also in Walton's Life of Wotton, p. 144), besides some letters in prose.

See the extracts from the Complete Angler in this vol. pp. 55, 110.

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I know you might (none better) make the Vine,
The Olive, Ivie, Mulberry, and Pine,
With others, their owne Dialects expose;

But you have taught them all rich English Prose.
I end and envie; but must justly say,

Who makes Trees speak so well, deserves the Bay.


Some Poems in Part I. have been claimed for other writers (Nos. i. vi. vii. xiii); but Wotton has gained as well as lost by the general confusion of property in these smaller compositions. It is not necessary to give a list of all the poems which have been erroneously attributed to him; but two instances may be mentioned, because they are brought forward by better authorities than usual.—Archbishop Sancroft assigns to him one of the most popular pieces printed among the Poems of Carew; it has also been given to Lord Pembroke; but Carew's title will probably be thought most valid, not by any means from the authority of the Collection which bears his name, but from the nature of the verses.*-Mr. Collier has printed, from Ben Jonson's handwriting, a translation of Martial's Vitam quæ faciunt beatiorem, which he thought might be Wotton's, because the same paper contained one of Wotton's pieces which Jonson had transcribed (see p. 29); but there can be no doubt that it is Jonson's own, as he told Drummond that he had translated that very Epigram.†

* In Carew it begins," Aske me no more where Jove bestowes"-p. 129, repr. of 1824. The other copies are in Pembroke's Poems, 1660, p. 92, and MS. Tann. 465, fol. 60. A fourth is in Wit Restored, 1658, p. 114. It is curious that no two of these agree throughout in the arrangement of the stanzas; but all the others begin with what is the second stanza in Carew, "Aske me no more whither do stray"-.

+ Collier's Life of Alleyn, p. 54, Conversations of Jonson and Drummond, p. 2, Shakesp. Soc. ed. cf. p. 7.—The Epigram (Lib. x. Ep. 47) was very frequently translated, as by Surrey (p. 43, ed. Nott), Randolph (p. 61, ed. 1668), &c. From one of Howell's Letters, it seems that he and Sir Thomas Lake had written rival translations for a wager, and that Sir Kenelm Digby adjudged Lake's to be the better. (Ep. Ho-El. § 5, p. 31, ed. 1645.) There is another translation in MS. Mal. 14, p. 34. Jonson may have transcribed a friend's translation, in addition to translating it himself; but the internal evidence, as Mr. Collier remarks, is decidedly in his favour.

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A brief account of Wotton's prose writings may be expected here. Most of them were posthumous; for though he sometimes amused himself with looking after printers,* he seldom committed anything to the press. There were, however, at least three things which were printed during his life-time ::

(1.) In 1612, he printed a Latin letter to Mark Welser, one of the Chief Magistrates of Augsburg, and dispersed it in most parts of Italy and Germany. This Epistle, in which much excellent vituperation is wasted on a very unworthy object, was occasioned by the results of an indiscretion committed in 1604, when he was on his way to Venice. In the plenitude of his satisfaction at having been recalled from exile to be honoured with knighthood,† and entrusted with an important office, Wotton grew facetious about his new dignity, and propounded his famous definition of an Ambassador,an honest man sent to lie abroad for the good of his Country." The pun might pass in English; for "to lie" was the term then used for the residence of an Ambassador. But when he issued it in Latin, for the benefit of the learned abroad, the equivocation vanished; and Scioppius, who was seeking accusations to bring against the Protestants, pounced upon the plain "ad mentiendum” as the English diplomatic creed. More mischief than Wotton had ever dreamt of


* See Rel. Wotton. pp. 321, 336, 340, 468.

+ Here we meet with a difficulty in passing. Wotton's name does not occur in the printed list of James's crowd of Knights; and the Records of the Herald's College will not supply the deficiency. Some have conjectured that he was knighted in Scotland, which is flatly at variance with Walton's narrative (p. 142). But it is known that some knighthoods were never recorded, because the new knights would not pay their fees.

Walton, pp. 150-2. Wotton wrote another letter on the subject to King James; and Wood speaks as if two were printed. A. O. ii. 644-5.-Contemporary allusions occur in Ruggle's Ignoramus, p. 32, ed. Hawkins; Massinger, ii. 126, ed. 1813; and a second pan on the definition (as if one were not enough) in a Sermon preached by Dr. J. King the younger before the University of Oxford in 1625, p. 6.—Notwithstanding the advice of his early friend Alberto Scipioni (Rel. Wotton. pp. 344, 356, cf. pp. 699, 711),

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rose out of this very simple jest; but its effects on his prospects have been sometimes overstated.*

(2.) In 1624, he published a small tract entitled "The Elements of Architecture," which has been frequently reprinted. One copy was presented to the Earl of Middlesex, with the following letter:- 一十


MY LORD, I humbly present vnto youre Lord this Pamphlet ; printed sheete by sheete as fast as It was borne, and borne

Wotton had to learn caution from experience; for there were three other matters in his first Venetian Embassy for which he has been blamed: first, for "injurions speeches" against the King of France in 1604 (Camd. Ann. Jac. I. pp. 3, 84); secondly, and most unjustly, for delaying to present King James's Book to the Venetian Senate (see the extracts in Bio. Brit. vi. 4343.); thirdly, for being (as some thought) too zealous for his Master's honour (Winwood, iii. 77; cf. Sketches from Ven. Hist. ii. 319-20).— Chamberlain's occasional attacks upon him (e. g. Winw. iii. 461,469) must have sprung from prejudice.

* It has been said, that he was kept five years without employment in consequence. Let us see how far this is true.-In 1612, he was Ambassador to Savoy. We have contemporary accounts of his setting out in March and returning in the end of July (Winwood, iii. 353, 367, 384; Nichols's Progresses of James I. ii. 438, 460; cf. Letters of F. Paul, 1693, pp. 322-5); and among the Ashm. MSS. (1729, Lett. 114-6) are two autograph letters from Wotton to Lord Pembroke written during his absence, one dated from the foot of M. Cenis, May 9: 1612: (with a journal) the other dated from Turin, May 28: 1612:-The accusation of Scioppius does not appear to have been known till after his return (Winw. iii. 407; Nichols, ib. 468); and his letter to Welser is dated Dec. 1612. Within a year after that period (viz. Nov. 16: evidently in 1613), he told Sir Edmund Bacon that the King had expressed a "general purpose" to put him "again into some use." (Rel. Wotton. p. 429.) The result of this I do not know; but he was again sent abroad before November, 1614, for Mr. Collier has recently printed a letter from him to Spinola which is dated in that month, and endorsed as from the "Embassador to the Estates Netherland." (Egerton Papers, p. 466. See also Rel. Wotton. p. 280.) In the following year, he was re-appointed to Venice. He had been a Member of Parliament in 1614. See this vol. p. 85, note.

+ The original is in Mr. Pickering's possession; but the signature has been cut away by the binder. Another copy was given "To Mr Doctor

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