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and privates of the marines, 3s. 6d. per man per calendar month; to 2nd class ordinary and landsmen, 2s. 6d.
“The proposed compensation allowance, together with the pay, will give to an able seaman something more than 41s. per calendar month.
But we strongly recomm
mend, that in the printed pay-table of the navy, the compensation allowance be kept entirely distinct from the pay.
“If there be men (and we think there will be many) who would wish to give up the remaining portion of their grog, they will receive from the purser the usual savings price, as shown underneath :
1 5 per calendar month, Add compensation allowance .
6 Total ....
4 11 for the surrender of the whole allowance.
“But if men who think proper to give up the proposed reduced allowance shall desire to return to it, they shall be at liberty to do so on giving notice of such wish on the first day of the month.
“ The committee recommend that a reduction or discontinuance be made for a time, at the discretion of the captain, in the compensation money, as a minor punishment for drunkenness; such abatement to be paid over for the comfort of the sick on board the ships to which the men belong, or such other object connected with the welfare of the seamen, as the Admiralty may determine; and that provision be made accordingly in the act of parliament authorising the compensation.
“Taking the vote at 39,000 men, and abating 5000 marines at headquarters, and the officers and boys not included in the compensation, leaves 26,000 to receive the proposed allowance, which, givingTo warrant-officers, petty officers, and non-commissioned
officers of marines, able and ordinary seamen, and ma-
3s. 6d. Second-class ordinary seamen and landsmen
2s. 6d. Will be about .....
£55,000 Deduct contract value spirits, about
10,000 Which leaves about......
£45,000 To be provided for. “ Though this is a large sum, we feel sure that the parliament and the country will readily apply it to the attainment of the great objects this plan has in view-namely, the efficiency of the fleet, the diminution of crime and its consequences, and the comfort and happiness of all on board.
“There remains a material question on which it is proper we should offer an opinion—whether the measure we have recommended shall be prospective, or immediately introduced as the general rule of the service.
“We are of opinion that with so liberal a scale of compensation as that we have proposed, there can be no reason to doubt that it will be received with thankfulness by most of the good and valuable men in the service; and, as it is their interest we have in view, as well as the good order and discipline of the fleet, we recommend that the change take immediate effect as regards all officers and all future entries. And as many of the ships now in commission will have completed their customary periods of service in the course of the present year, the committee consider it would be advantageous to the service if their lordships were to fix a convenient day for carrying the proposed reduction into general effect; and that in the meantime it should be left optional to the crews of her Majesty's ships to accept the advantages held out by the proposed measure.
“We beg to add the following summary of what is proposed in this report:-1. That the present allowance of spirits or wine be reduced onehalf. 2. That the remaining portion be issued at dinner-time. 3. That admirals, captains, and ward-room officers shall not receive any payment for the half-ration of spirits taken from them. 4. That mates, second masters, surgeons' assistants, and clerks, shall receive compensation at the present savings price for the half allowance of the spirits to be reduced. 5. That midshipmen, cadets, and boys who do not receive a ration of spirits, be paid a compensation equal to the savings price of the present whole allowance. 6. That warrant officers, working petty officers, able and ordinary seamen, and non-commissioned officers and privates of marines, shall receive for their half allowance a compensation payment in money of 3s. 6d. per man per calendar month. 7. That second-class ordinary seamen and landsmen be allowed 23. 6d. per man per calendar month. 8. That men wishing to give up the reduced allowance, shall receive a further compensation equal to the savings price for such period as they may think proper. 9. That no raw spirits be issued to any one, except under special circumstances, at the discretion of the captain. 10. That in cases of persisting drunkenness a deduction or discontinuance be made for a time in the compensation allowance.
“The committee cannot close their report on the important questions referred to their consideration, without expressing their hope and confident expectation that the measures they have proposed will be conducive to the credit of the British navy, and tend to fulfil their lordships' anxious desire to promote the best interests of the seamen."
The effect of these comprehensive and liberal plans will, we are assured, prove most valuable. Some of the great lessons taught by them are, that drunkenness is a national curse—that as such, it is the imperative duty of those in authority to check, and, if possible, destroy the evil--that habits of morality are, in themselves, a personal, social, and national benefit; to secure which, it becomes at once a duty and a delight to make pecuniary sacrifices, in order to carry them into immediate and full effect; and finally, that the ulterior result of the whole arrangement may eventually lead to the total extinction of the custom of issuing any quantity of spirituous liquors.
So noble an example has but to be carried out in the mercantile navy, and the results could not fail to prove beneficial to the health, happiness, and well-being of our seamen, and prepare the way for their reception of the higher blessings of personal religion.
THE SAILORS’ HYMN BOOK.* The Directors of the British and Foreign Sailors' Society have, from time to time, availed themselves of the influence of the press, as a means of benefiting seamen. One instance of this appears in their “SAILORS' HYMN Book," a new edition of which they now offer to their friends. If it be supposed that a Hymn Book, specially compiled for sailors, is a work altogether unnecessary, on account of there being already so many admirable collections of Psalms and Hymns, it may be asked, in return, “Why should there not be a Hymn Book prepared with the special view to the edification of sailors ?” Are not the men who go down to the sea in ships, and do business in great waters," in many respects, a peculiar people? Are they not a numerous class? Is not their life spent on a peculiar element? Are not their manners and habits different from those of landsmen? Do they
* New edition, published by the Directors. Edited by their Chaplain, the Rev. T. C. Finch.
not, in a very extraordinary manner, "see the works of the Lord and his wonders in the deep?" Are not their minds, therefore, though constituted like those of landsmen, differently exercised and directed by the nature of their occupation, the character of their duties, and the trials of their life? While such is their condition, and such their necessary discipline, it seems only just and reasonable, that appropriate provision should be made to direct their devotions in the most profitable manner, and to aid them in “speaking to themselves in psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, singing and making melody in their hearts to the Lord, giving thanks always for all things unto God and the Father, in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ.”(Eph. v. 19-20.)
Every intelligent person, to whom the moral claims of seamen have been referred, has admitted their justice, and the great merits of seamen as a class of the community. Yet only a few, even of the ministers of Christ, have manifested concern for their spiritual welfare. Their character and claims have not been understood. They have been, in a great degree, an unknown class of people. Their separation from the worshipping assemblies, and their occupation on the mighty deep, have occasioned their being forgotten. Our most popular Hymn Books, therefore, with scarcely an exception, contain few hymns appropriate to the peculiar condition of seamen, even if there be found a reference to these men. Though these are admirable for evangelical sentiment and a devotional spirit, containing hymns adapted for all other classes of persons, yet the compilers seem to have forgotten the existence of mariners, though comprising a number, besides their families, amounting to about three hundred thousand of our fellow-Britons !
Seamen demand, as they deserve, aids to their devotion in this respect. And, considering the honour that God has put upon the agency and operations of the “ British and Foreign Sailors' Society,” since its public origin, when, on the 4th of May, 1818, under the title of the “Port of London Society,” it opened the first floating chapel for seamen—and still more since 1833, in an enlarged agency, under its present name,--the Directors have felt called upon, as a duty, to provide a IIymn Book for the use of the increasing numbers of religious mariners.
Reflecting on their responsibility in this matter, in their new work, their design has been to select an adequate number of Psalms and Hymus, containing the richest and most edifying exhibition of the doctrines of Divine Revelation. Sufficient reason for the provision of an appropriate Hymn Book for Seamen will appear from the representation of their condition in their singular occupation, as given by the inspired Psalmist. His description is truly affecting; and we give therefore the paragraph, with the beautiful commentary upon it, as prepared by the pious Bishop Horne:
“ They that go down to the sea in ships, that do business in great waters, these see the works of the Lord, and his wonders in the deep. For he commandeth, and raiseth the stormy wind, which lifteth up the waves thereof. They mount up to heaven, they go down again to the depths, their soul is melted because of trouble. They reel to and fro, and stagger like a drunken man, and are at their wit's end. (Heb.-'All their wisdom is swallowed up.') Then they cry to the Lord in their trouble, and he bringeth them out of their distresses. He maketh the storm a calm, so that the waves thercof are still. Then are they glad, because they be quiet; so he bringeth them unto their desired haven. O that men would praise the Lord for his goodness, and for his wonderful works to the children of men! Let them exalt him also in the congregation of the people, and praise him in the assembly of the elders.”(Ps. cvii. 23-32.)
Landsmen who have never encountered the perils of a foreign voyage can have no adequate idea of the sensations of seamen after such impressive experience. And few are qualified to enter into the peculiar ardour of these men, when become the true disciples of Christ, and reflecting on the good.
ness and mercy of God to them, in such deliverance from raging storms and tempests at sea. Only those who have mingled with pious seamen in their Bethel meetings can truly conceive the character of their social devotions.
Bishop Horne thus remarks on the expressive paragraph of the Psalmist :6 The fourth similitude chosen to portray the dangers of our present state, and the goodness of God displayed in our salvation, is taken from that signal instance of the Divine power and providence, the preservation of mariners in a storm at sea. The description which the Psalmist hath given us of such an event admitteth of no comment. Experience alone can illustrate its beauty, evince its truth, and point out the propriety of the circumstances which are selected to furnish us with a full and complete idea of the whole. Few of us, indeed, are ever likely to be in that terrible situation. But then we cannot help reflecting that there is a ship, in which we are all embarked ; there is a troubled sea, on which all sail ; there are storms, by which we are all frequently overtaken; and there is a haven, which we all desire to behold and to enter. For the church is a ship; the world is a sea ; temptations, persecutions, and afflictions are the waves of it; the prince of the power of the air is the stormy wind which raises them ; and heaven is the only port of rest and security. Often, during the voyage, for our punishment or our trial, God permitteth us to be thus assaulted. The succession and the violence of our trouble, the elevation and depression of mind and fortune, the uncertainty of our counsels, and our utter inability to help ourselves, are finely represented by the multitude and impetuosity of the waves, the tossings and agitations of the vessel, the confusion, terror, and distress among the sailors. In both cases, prayer is the proper effect, and the only remedy left. With the earnestness of affrighted mariners, who will then be devout, though they never were so before, we should, as it were, 'awake? him, like the disciples, with repetitions of Lord, save us, we perish!' Then will he arise, and rebuke the authors of our tribulation, saying unto them, Peace, be still!' And, at length, he will bring us,' in peace and joy and gladness, ' to our desired haven,' there to é exalt him in the congregation of his chosen, and 'praise him in the great assembly of saints and angels.”
Impressed with the correctness of this view of the oracles of God, as written by the Psalmist, and of the experience of seamen as here described, and with the mind of the Spirit as represented by the evangelical prelate,this new collection of Hymns has been made. And the Directors of the Society have reason to believe that the volume, though small, will be esteemed as a treasure by many mariners, for their use both in private and at their Bethel meetings. They trust that it will also be prized by other classes of Christians, in aiding their devotions.
Commending this humble volume, therefore, to the blessing of God in Christ Jesus, who only is able to render it truly useful, they trust that He will be glorified by it, in the edification and the praises of his people, and pour out his Spirit upon our mariners, and those who labour to evangelise them, until “the abundance of the sea shall be converted” unto the church of Christ, to the honour and praise of the Divine Redeemer !
REID'S LAW OF STORMS.* This volume contains the foundation and proofs of a remarkable theory: From the evidence obtained it appears highly probable that the action of nature in its atmospheric convulsions is regular, and that tempests move and
* "The Progress of the Development of the Law of Storms, and of the Variable Winds, with the Practical Application of the subject to Navigation.” Illustrated by charts and woodcuts. By Lieutenant-Colonel William Reid, C.B., F.R.S., of the Corps of Royal Engineers.-- From the " Times."
operate according to a fixed law. The development of this law by means of facts, arranged according to place and time, is the great object of Colonel Reid's endeavours, and it is the success or “progress” of this development up to the present moment which he has communicated to the world in the volume at present under review. The following are the chief conclusions of the theory which have now been strengthened by the experience of eleven years :
1. Great storms are progressive whirlwinds ; that is to say, they are portions of the atmosphere in a state of rapid revolution, and having, besides this motion round their own vortices or centres, a general progressive motion at a variable rate of speed.
2. In tropical latitudes, the first of these motions takes opposite directions on opposite sides of the Equator--that is to say, the whirlwind revolves one way in the northern hemisphere and the opposite way in the southern, from which conclusion it directly follows that such a storm could not pass the Equator without subsiding, as its mode of revolution would be reversed.
3. The progressive motion of these whirlwinds within the tropics is generally from east to west, until they reach the 25th or 30th degree of latitude, and incline towards the poles, when they recurve again to the eastward, in opposite directions, according to the hemisphere in which they are situate. Their rate of speed is found to vary from three to forty-three miles per hour; and it is even thought that at some particular periods, such, for instance, as the moment of recurvature, their progress is below the lowest of these rates. Presuming the whirlwind to be stationary, its figure would be correctly represented by a circle; and such figure indeed approximates so nearly to accuracy, that it is usually employed on the storm charts ; but in the case of a progressive whirlwind the figure would of course become cycloidal, or, in other words, it would resemble a common coil of rope somewhat opened out. It is rather difficult to put diagrams into words, as the reader may perhaps discover, but we must do our best to define the fundamental propositions of the theory, and the practical results will soon be found in the highest degree interesting.
According, therefore, to this theory, a storm is a convulsion of a limited portion of the atmosphere, assuming a known configuration, and moving in an ascertainable direction, whence it follows that such storms may be sailed out of, or overtaken and sailed into, and even, under certain circumstances, scientifically avoided, of all which incidents examples have been supplied by actual practice. The subject of inquiry thus becomes twofold; first, as regards the revolution of the whirlwind itself, and next as regards its general progress or track. The discoveries on the former of these points have gone far to elucidate one of the great mysteries of nature in the action of the barometer, and to explain the true cause of the rise and fall of the mercury during a storm. When an extended portion of the atmosphere has been set in a state of revolution a centrifugal action is necessarily created by such movement, and, by consequence, the atmospheric pressure at certain parts of the earth's surface is proportionately diminished. A familiar exemplification of the principle alluded to will be given by a tumbler half full of water in a state of rapid revolution. If the tumbler, while the water is thus revolving, be held up to the light, the surface of the liquid, representing the atmosphere, will be seen to be depressed in the centre of the whirl. An atmospheric whirlwind acts in a similar manner by diminishing, as we have said, the pressure upon the earth's surface, and most of all in the centre of the whirl or storm, so that as the mercury in the barometer feels this diminution of pressure at the approach of a storm it begins to fall, and will be at its lowest when the centre of the storm is passing over the spot, i.e., in the thickest of the tempest, but will again recover itself after this is past, and will gradually rise as the influence of the whirlwind is removed and the atmosphere regains its usual gravity. It will thus be seen, that what the barometer foretells is, emphatically, a storm, for its action is exclusively due to the rotatory motion