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Literature, their varied productions not perhaps be thought improper or would breathe a more elevating, pure, ill-timed. Christianity will, I think, and classically elegant spirit, would make a Philosopher doubt, but a soar more frequently above the petty reasonable man believe ; or I should and ephemeral subjects which, as they rather say (for I by no means wish are raised far above their proper le- to cast a general imputation ou Phivel, bave of late seemed to sustaio a losopby), that Christianity muy inake marvellous interest in the public mind. a Philosopber doubt, but it will make After the example of writers who a reasonable man believe. lodeed I adorned some of our brightest Lite. think that there is no real medium berary days, and who, until very re- tween Christianity and Atheism. The cently* have aniversally sustained an former, when fairly examined, will unshaken reputation for genius as for be found supported by such a prodilearning and taste, it would assured- gious mass of evidence, that the rely require no upworthy sacrifice of jection of it will leave no principles judgment to ascertain whether the in the mind to substantiate any other materials be worthy of the genius system of religious belief. Deisin employed upon them, or whether, ou then (independently of some obserthe other hand, the form, polish, and vations and reasonings that can have style of the laboured production cor- no firm hold upon the mind) will be responds with the sentiment which a mere arbitrary supposition ; and adorns it, or the intellect which gave the disconsolate void of Atheism will it birth. Then would be more dis- be the real state of the mind, when tinctly seen how far the genius which left to its own conclusions. now enlightens our Poetical hemis- Yours, &c.

A LAYMAN. phere is equal to that which shope in past ages,-how far the range and


Nov. 5. compass of their thioking approximate to the same standard with those The following

Epigram, from the whose felicity of conception, no less than their correct taste, has long noured with two elegant Latio verbeen the subject of eulogy amongst brated men, Hugo Grotius and Dr.

sions from the pens of those celemankind. Tostead of the turgid dic. tion, distorted sentiment, and puerile Johnson. They are subjoined ; and conceit which so frequently fill the

I have taken the liberty of adding a pages of modern Poets,-fictions and poetical translation, not recollecting fancy would then be more frequently that the Epigram has ever before

It is associated and tempered with dignity received an English version. and elevation of style and of senti. singularly beautiful, and, proceeding ment. The mind, in the habit of from a couutry more eminent for studying classical models, would be genius and science, than for purity

of morals or strictness of decorum, receiving fresh accessions of intellectual pleasures, while the vitiated deserves commendation for the chaste taste, which is apt to pervade the and elegant form of its expressions, great mass of readers, would be re

and for the moral spirit which it formed, and writers receive the breathes.

The word κειμηλια posgrateful acknowledgments of those sesses a peculiar grace, the beauty who are, ju another age, to form an of which, I am apprehensive, fades opinion.

in translation. Grotius, whose verMelksham.

E. P. sion approaches nearest to the ori(To be concluded in the Supplement.) ginal, has rendered it by honos, but

this does not fully express the meanMr. URBAN,

Dec. 11. ing of waglering xalpenasa, i.e. res preS in these awful times, not only tiosæ reconditæ virginitatis. The System also is threatened (I do not in Homer, in which it is used in a say with any real danger to the lat. similar manner, in the sepse of treater, for the “ Rock” of Christianity sures. will not be so easily overthrown) Πολλα δ' εν άφνειου αθρος κειμηλια the following short observations may

a... Iliad, 2. 47. * Alluding to some opinions in the " And many precious things lie hoarded LIII. Number of the Edinburgh Review, up in the bouse of my rich father."


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1819.) Epigrani. -- Letters of Reo. W. Gilpin. 503 Καλα τα παρθενιης κειμηλια τσαρθενιη δε πow, Sir, having thanked you for Τον βιον ώλεσεν άν σασι φυλαττομενη.

what is pást, I can only solicit your Τουνεκεν ενθεσμως άλοχον λαβε, και τινα

future goodness. I shall have the

Acts and Epistles four or five weeks, κοσμο Aos Bporov avto order Peuve de peceXXou and if any thing strike you, I think i

or perbaps more, yet in my hands ; ouenv. -Paul. Silen.

dare veuture to say, that whatever re“ Virginitas 'pretiosus honos; sed vita marks you make, they will be highly periret,

approved by me. I am, Sir, your most Si foret in cunctis virginitatis amor.

obedient and obliged humble servant, Legibus uxorem socia tibi ; sic dabis orbi

WILL. GILPIN." Pro te hominem, purus turpis adulterii.” H. Grotius.

Vicar's-hill, « Pulchra est virginitas intacta ; at vita

« Dear Sir,

16, 1792. periret,

6 The last edition of the Lectures Omnes si vellent virginitate frui.

on the Catechism, of which you are Nequitiem fugiens, servatâ contrahe lege Conjugium, ut pro te des hominem pa,

pleased to speak so favourably, is triæ.”-Dr. Johnsori.

printed in a small volume, for two “One treasure fair, by female worth pos

sbillings; which my bookseller told sess'd,

me was as cheap as he could print it. Is Chastity, a prize by all confess'd;

But still he has left the blank pages, Yet, not to all the valu'd gift extends,



find fault with, and which Creation shows, or life and nature ends. I find fault with likewise ; and which Then Vice avoid, the laws of Heav'n obey, I think might have been much better A consort take, 'tis Virtue points the way. bestowed io widening the space beAnd to that world where first you being tween the lines, and making the book knew,

easier be read. I wrote my last in A life return, that being still renew.”

so much haste (to save the post), that Yours, &c.

C. W.

I forgot to mention two or three

other things. I was much pleased ORIGINAL LETTERS TO THE with your criticism on 1 Cor. xv. 55, Rev. W. Green.

and indeed with all your criticisms, (Continued from p. 419.) except that on 2 Cor. iv. 4. Though Vicar's-hill, near Lym

I believe in the Devil, as religiously ington, Sept. 20, 1792. as you do, yet as the God of the RECEIVED your obliging and world is an ambiguous expression,

valuable letter (though not quite and has by some been mistaken, i so soon as I ought, which is my apo ing than the words.

thought it better to give the meanlogy for not answering it sooner), aod return you many and very sin

« With regard to pointing, my cere thanks for it. It is many years

chief view is to assist the eye of the since I began the work, of which you

reader, as well as the sense of the are pleased to speak so favourably self to assert, that there are few per

book. But I know enough of myand having spent much time it is a great pleasure to me to tind my

son's more inaccurate, or more apt to labours approved by those whom í

mistake, though I hope not in mat. conceive to be judges of such works,

ters of consequence. and feel themselves interested in them.

“ You will be so good, my dear -I had already sent to the press a

Sir, as to let me hear you have got new edition in 8vo, to be prioted with

rid of your troublesome disorder. references to the chapters, just as

With our best respects to Mrs. Green,

believe me, dear Sir, your obliged and you had recommended. But if St. Matthew was already printed, I could

most obedient servant, not introduce a note op vi. 13, but I

WILL. GILPIN." will add it at the end. The antithesis bad escaped me, which I thipk gives

« Dear Sir,

Vicar's-hill, Nov. T8 wonpe singular propriety. Your

27, 1792. two remarks on Luke ji. 49, and “ I am truly glad your indisposiJohn vjïi. 7, were both new to me; tion is removed. At our time of life aud as I had those gospels still in my we must expect preparatory messenhands, I have availed myself of them; gers. We have only to.pray for an as I entirely approve them both. And easy digmission, if it be God's will.


« Sir,

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upon it,


Ar acquaintanco of mine used to say, On the Extent of the Historic Relabe did not fear death, but the ap- tion in discovering and marshalling paratus of it. It pleased God to the Subjects of Human Knowledge: grant him such a death, as your father had. He died instantaneously in

(Continued from Part I. p. 409.) his reading-desk. At least, he was


UT we must analyse more partibut just taken out of the church.

cularly Lord Bacon's division of “I entirely approve of what you knowledge; and show how the posisay of my curtailiog 1 Tim. iii. 16. tion “that the abstract truths of Ma. I have altered. it thus:-- The re thematicks, Metaphysicks, and Phydemption of man is a scheme full of sicks, are creatures of the Intellect; greatness and wonder.-God wus ma- or, more correctly speaking, “ nifest in the flesh-adored by angels fixed, permanent, immutable truths," in Heaven-proved on earth by pro- that this is equally applicable to all phecies and miracles-received into other historic, and poetic truth. The glory-and shall hereafler be preach registered remembrance of a fact, is ed, and believed on throughout all the as permament as memory itself, or "world.'

its register: if these are perishable, “I join with you, dear Sir, in all they can both be replaced and thus your kind ideas of congeniality ; as their truths handed down in perpeMrs. Gilpin does with Mrs. Green, to tual succession to the end of the world. whom she desires her best compli. If lost, a recurrence of similar facts ments; and should have been exceed- will suggest the same historical truth ingly sorry if, for the sake of cere- ---similar causes producing ever simimony, she had done any thing to in- lar effects. What is alike applicable commode her eyes.

to all these three kinds, or degrees of “ That coevals like us should have knowledge, is only one condition :congenial ideas, is not wonderful: that they be conformable to nature but I have been rather surprized at that is, to facts. And it bas often an intiinacy I made, a few months happened that particular arts and ago, with a young gentleman, not sciences have been lost and recohalf my age. He is a very extraor- vered afterwards—that is-re-prodinary man. His name is Gisborn. duced, re-invented. And this inconHe inherited a large estate (oot less, venience is just as incident to philoI believe more, than three thousand sophical and poetical, as it is to what a year) in Derbyshire. But not is strictly called historical truth. liking county-convexions, he left a So, the principles of taste, or the large house near Derby, which cost science of beauty and harmony, are his father 10,0001.--look orders, just as much fixed as our appetites and for a pretence to be serious

and re- affections. They are variously cultitired to a seat he has in Needwood- vated, and applied or, in other words, forest, where he is highly respected historised. by all his neighbours ; and unbene Wbatever happens, or is happen. ficed, does the duty of a clergyman. able, is History: the Creation and He came with his family to Lyming. Revelations of the Supreme Being, ton for sea-bathing. I never visit; the continued daily and yearly action but he called upon me ; and we form of the globe, and of the planetary ed an intimacy, which I dare say will system the classification, nomencla. last with our lives. In all our senti- ture, changes and revolutions in the ments, and modes of living (except- subordinate kingdoms of the physical ing the difference of fortune), we are world : whether in the conformation congenial. He is a pleasant man, and of minerals, the life of plants and ania scholar. I am one of those odd mals—but chiefest, though last, of people, who like my own company man-the thoughts, speech, and the better than the generality of com- actions of man—the succession of ge-, pany I meet with ; but he never nerations. Mathematicks, and the came amiss. He is the gentleman elements of arts and sciences, together who answered some of the offensive with language, are but the instruparts of Mr. Paley's book; and wrote ments, the rule, the scale, the optical a very spirited tract against the Slave- glasses, or mediums, the precis, and trade. Believe me, dear Sir, your very simplest exponent of tbis history. By sincere, &c. WILL. GILPIN." those we take the observation of all



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1819.] On the Extent of the Historic Relation.

505 that passes within and around us, ro- divine: and the truths or modes of gistering it at the same time. What history are 'as intellectual, fixed, and is called individual history, whether immutable (bumanly'speaking) as the of a man, of a transaction, of a peo. analogies of language, of thought, ple, is only a particular individual, physical properties and powers, place, clothed for the momeot (in our con- or time. ceptions) with the action, pomp, and What, therefore, is commonly circumstance, the passing name of called BIOGRAPHY and HISTORY, is general being. The individual exist- nothing more than a man, an action, ed in the concrete no doubt; but in a cominunity, exemplifying a geneour conceptions it must be general character in our intelleci-some ralized, or it could not be the object common quantity--and thus illusof our conception. 'It must be assi- trating the meaning of a term in the milated to a general nature: the ac- lexicon, or table of buman knowtions which took seventy years to ledge: attended with modes, circumaccomplish, must pass through our stances, time, and place: which, on minds in fewer minutes. Even when using or defining any common word we have the portrait of a man, we in a dictionary, do necessarily accom. always conceive some very general pany that word, figuring and colourindefinite person, and clothing him ing it in various ways;- and ever do with its character, put him upon the they give an unfaithful colour to it; scene of our imagination: where he there being some refraction (as optiacts his part, dressed as a thousand cians term it) of the rays of truth in others have been before him, and a - applyiog our general ideas to any inthousand others will be after him, dividual, or in using any term whatwith some variation only of shape, soever. For words do only approxisize, circumstance, time and place. mate to thought, and enable us to So bis country is generalized. This collect, by a species of conjectural conception of ours, by which we call aoalogy, the meaning (with sufficient up any historical fact, acts just as a certainty, indeed; for the purpose of general word does an attribute) lise) rather than define accurately our whenever we have occasion for it, to ineaning. It is rather an. inference perform, at differeot times, a different we collect from indication, than a assigned duty: or just as a moveable metaphysical certainty, which pertype is successively employed in a haps we cannot arrive at with these hundred different places of ihe same faculties, in this state of being. work, and in a hundred different Words, terms, and narratives of iodi. works. We cannot soppose an idea vidual history, personify, or act a as individual as the person himself. character, raising curiosity, and cerIn that case it would be the very in- tain ideas in our minds, in a more or dividual, and we must exactly live less lively and interesting manner : over again that time, and occupy and those words and terms do it best that space, commensurately, that the and nearest to truth-that generalize individual himself did, or does. This best — and thus becoine standing would not be reducing the potice of terms, glasses of the least possible him to that generality, in which refraction. For words are ever sug. knowledge seems' essentially to con- gesting numerous analogies, besides sist. Whatever happens must, in our the one proposed. But some fact minds, become assimilated to some must have “happened.” Our great uniform pattern, which pattern can subject is truth, and lively impressuccessively represent all individuals sion, or ideal picture of being. This of the same class. This uniforın is as is our main business in this passing applicable to all objects of its class, state ; towards, perhaps, acquiring, as the common measure of number in another state, bigber faculties and and extent is applicable to whatever more perfect mediums for conceiving is one, or many, and extended. This the great and only true Being. Ia I take to be bistory " whatever hap- this conception of what happens, we pens,” or is happenable-if I may use must know it, where, when, aud as it the expression :-THIS is knowledge, happens, to estimate how far it is when disposed into beads, by means consonant to such imperfect standards of the analogy of pature, buman and as we bave, and to furbish the greater GENT. Mag. December, 1819.

number human


form, every

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Dumber of analogies to check each existence, at which we happen to other. Whereupon, by a process of louch when now speaking, and as it

induction and analysis, we collect is incessantly spinning off into the from various positions, the fair re- past, before we can so much as ut. sult. While ibe general faculties ter it in words, we cannot form an of man, intellectual aod moral; of idea of any thing till after it becomes speech; of calculation ; of distribu. among things past.

So that every tion of social government, and of perception we taste, are more in the analogy of thought, is an historical notice. By truth, than those of any individual graving this in letlers, we fix ils ex. can be : and koowledge may be de- istence stop its transitoriness-10 fined the induction from general, to far, at least, that we can renew and particular and individual notices. re-produce the idea of it unaltered

This historical conception of our at pleasure: and can make it as ever experiences in any narration, is as present to us as any other truth of much an abstract truth, a species of art and science, styled immutable. the intellect, as the logicians call it, In the mental conception of our as any principle of the arts and sci. experience, in the memory of it afences. Nor can we think, talk, or terwards, as well as in the express uoderstand what is said to us, but narration, every thing is submitted by such general ideas. A miod of to reduction, selection, and becomes individual experiences only, would more generalized-tbat is, less indibe bereft of the power of thinking, vidual; it must be traosmilted into just as a language of proper names something of the spiritual nalure of would be equivalent to the having mind. Besides contracting the events no language at all.

of years into the duration of a few At the same time every man is not hours, or seconds, when they pass io only an individual, but his experience review before us — we bring wideis of individuals; his perception, his extended and distant places near to wants, his actions, are individual: us-lo a point. And as in perspecevery thing around him is individual tive, a dislaot mouolain must fill a

-has, or might have, ils proper small space in the angle of vision, pane, time, and place, with other while a blade of grass near lo us, circumstances and modes of being. occupies a very large one-We.corBut the notices of it must be ab. rect this by our judgment :-s the stracted in his inind, that is, assimi- historical relation performs somewhat lated to general, or historical ideas, of the same operation in its pictures, before it can become a subject of and selections. Otherwise, indeed, other men's interest, conversation, every act of memory must be com. conception-or even of his own pro- mensurate in duration with that of per conception. This historical re- ils subject of contemplativn: an alduction of it, is a logical process, na- tribute which can belong only to the tural aod instinctive, in other miods, all-powerful, omniscient, and omniby their divine and immortal nature: present Being. This process of rean intelligence which is the great Re- duction and generalising, is the comcorder of being—as conscience is of mon measure by which we can bring the morality of our motives and ac- together, collaie, compare, and esti

. tions: if conscience, indeed, be not

male, any two transactions, however rather another energy of the same, different and wide asunder, and thus one in visible faculty which possesses arrive at any further infereace or us,--and pot, as some think it, a dis- conclusion. tinct faculty *.

By this means the miod can conNow as the present is but a point, ceive any number, variely, the point in the continuous thread of of objects; and thus the modes of * The same may be said with regard to the faculty of taste

- that it is rather a distinct energy of one common faculty, called mind, or intelligence, than a distinct faculy of itself, or internal sepse. Though there seems, it must be owned, the same logical difference between our internal reflex senses, as between the external ones. But as these belong still to one miod—this gives them historical identity and unity of operation: indeed, otherwise their

notices would be independenlaod no more communica. Live for

one purpose than the senses of sight and hearing placed asunder in two distinct beings.


or exteut,

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